"Literature shapes itself, and is not shaped externally."
Frye, Anatomy of
De Man, Blindness and Insight;
Levinson, "Law as Literature." See also rebuttal by
Graff, "'Keep Off the Grass,' 'Drop Dead,'
and Other Indeterminacies: A Response to Sanford Levinson."
Benjamin, "The Work of Art," p.242. For a pertinent discussion of
morality and art in narrative, see
Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction, pp. 397-98.
Moore, Confessions of a Young Man, pp.106-7; emphasis added.
Nabokov, Strong Opinions, passim.
As in the case of the otherwise monumental book by
Wimsatt and Brooks, Literary Criticism, 2:476-98.
Guérard, Art for Art's Sake, pp.xiv and 34.
Cassagne, La théorie de l'art, pp.6. Rosenblatt, L'idée de l'art, pp.15-43.
Wilcox, "The Beginnings of l'art pour l'art," p. 361.
Egan, The Genesis of the Theory of "Art for Art's Sake" in Germany and
Plekhanov, Art and Social Life, pp. 11 and 45; excerpted in
, Marxism and Art, pp. 88 and 94.
See Solomon, Marxism and Art, p.238.
Scott, Francis Hutcheson, pp.149-52.
Shaftesbury, Characteristics. All page references are made in the body of
Abrams convincingly traces both Shaftesbury's ideas and vocabulary to
neo-Platonist thought and to early Christian theology, notably to that
of St. Augustine. See Abrams, "Art-as-Such," in Doing Things with Texts,
pp.154-55. These ancient origins of course do not negate what is new
and distinctive in Shaftesbury's ethics.
Hutcheson, An Inquiry into the Original of Our ideas of Beauty and Virtue.
Page references are made in the body of the text.
Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry, p.xxvii.
Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, p.347.
Abrams argues that, in spite of its logical baggage and Latin expository
prose, Baumgarten's theory of poetry makes him "a Continental Formal