See Robinson 1987; Payne 1989, 1990, 1994; and Barnett 1993.
Somers and Gibson 1994, pp. 37-99.
Brown 1989, pp. 613-614. See also Ogunyami 1985 and Walker 1983-
Evans 1979; McAdam 1988; and Rothschild 1982.
See, for example, the mass-society approaches of Komhauser ( 1959); Fromm ( 1940; and Hoffer ( 1951); and the Chicago School theorists, Turner and Killian ( 1957); Park ( 1967); and Lang and Lang ( 1961). These earlier approaches, including the work of LeBon ( 1960) and Blumer ( 1961), emphasized the irrational
nature of social movement behavior. As noted by Lofland ( 1982), later collective
behavior theorists such as Turner ( 1968), Couch ( 1970), Berk ( 1974), and Charles
Tilly ( 1978) would take a more normative view of crowd behavior, while still
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: How Long? How Long?:African American Women and the Struggle for Civil Rights.
Contributors: Belinda Robnett - Author.
Publisher: Oxford University Press.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 216.
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