CHAPTER 10
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF QUAKERISM IN AMERICA

AFTER the Restoration, Friends continued to be persecuted in New England, Maryland and Virginia in spite of colonial charters and the king's commands. There were no more executions in Massachusetts Bay Colony, but in 1662 the barbarous "Cart and Whip Act" was reënacted. Under it, many Friends, including women and children, were stripped to the waist, tied to the tail of carts and whipped through the towns, ten lashes in each, until they were out of the province. Besides, many were imprisoned and fined for attending Friends meetings, furnishing them meeting places or entertaining them. In 1664, Charles II addressed an injunction to the colonial magistrates,

To permit such as desire it to use the Book of Common Prayer, without incurring any penalty, reproach, or disadvantage; it being very scandalous, [continues the admonition] that any person should be debarred the exercise of their religion, according to the laws and customs of England, by those who were indulged with the liberty of being of what profession or religion they pleased.1

About a year later the king sent a similar charge to the Connecticut authorities. While these orders did not include Quakers, they did make impossible the ideal of uniformity which supplied one motive for persecuting

____________________
1
Bowden, Hist., I, 278.

-108-

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