Oakboys (Hearts of Oak), a movement of popular protest in Cos. Armagh, Tyrone, and Monaghan in 1763. The main grievances were county *cess, which was rising as the growth of the *linen industry created a need for better roads and bridges, and the lesser *tithes demanded by the clergy of the *Church of Ireland. Presbyterians, Anglicans, and Catholics all took part in the protest.
oath of allegiance. Following the *Remonstrance controversy of the 1660s there were various attempts over the century that followed to agree a formula whereby Catholics could attest their loyalty to the monarch. Such a formula, it was argued by Protestant supporters, would make it possible to progress from the indiscriminate, and slackly enforced, *penal laws to measures that would discriminate effectively between loyal and disloyal Catholics. Although the idea had some appeal to the Catholic gentry, the clergy were held back both by scruples over the claims of the exiled Stuarts (see JACOBITISM) and by the fear that explicitly to repudiate doctrines such as the power of the pope to depose heretical princes might give credence to Protestant charges that these were in fact Catholic doctrine. In 1774 an act of the Irish parliament permitted Catholics to swear allegiance to the king and to make a declaration disavowing the pope's deposing power and the doctrine that faith need not be kept with heretics. The Catholic archbishop of Cashel and several bishops, mainly in Munster, took the oath along with their clergy, while the archbishop of Dublin condemned it as unacceptable. The * Catholic Committee likewise split into jurors and non-jurors. The controversy was effectively ended when the first *Catholic Relief Act ( 1778) restricted its provisions to those who had taken the oath, leading opponents quietly to drop their objections.
oath of allegiance, prescribed in article 4 of the *Anglo-Irish treaty for members of the *Irish Free State parliament. In form it differed from that of the other dominions: 'faith and allegiance' were sworn primarily to the constitution; fidelity to the king was sworn by virtue of common citizenship with Britain and membership of the *Commonwealth. Despite these modifications, the oath was the treaty provision most resented by opponents. Attempts were made to exclude it from the draft *constitution but after pressure from British ministers it was incorporated into article 17. Following the *Electoral Amendment Act ( 1927), de *Valera was forced reluctantly to take the oath and enter the *Dáil. When he came to power in 1932 he immediately introduced a bill to abolish the oath, which contributed to the start of the *Economic War. Rejected by the *Senate, the bill became law in 1933.
O'Brien (Ua/Ó Briain), successors of the Dál Cais as kings of Thomond in modern Co. Clare. Donogh ( Donnchad Cairprech), king 1210-42, accepted a charter from King* John for this reduced portion of the former O'Brien territory. Fresh royal grants of land in the region to Thomas de *Clare in 1276 initiated a further cycle of English expansion, leading to several decades of conflict, until the battle of * Dysert O'Dea ended the de Clare challenge. Thereafter the O'Briens continued to make periodic war on the English of Munster. Teig O'Brien ( Tadhg Ó Briain), king 1459-66, extended his lordship into adjacent parts of Cos. Limerick and Tipperary. In 1543, under the policy of *surrender and regrant, Murrough O' Brien became 1st earl of Thomond and Baron Inchiquin. The Inchiquin title descended in a junior line, raised to an earldom in 1654 (see INCHIQUIN, MURROUGH O'BRIEN, 1ST EARL OF). In 1663, following the *Restoration, Daniel O'Brien, third son of the 3rd earl of Thomond, was created Viscount Clare. His great-grandson Charles O'Brien, 5th viscount (d. 1706), followed * James II to France after the *Williamite War, and gave his name to a regiment in the French service. By contrast his cousins, the earls of Thomond and Inchiquin, were firm supporters of the Protestant succession, allowing the