The Oxford Companion to Irish History

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pact election ( 16 June 1922). The election was for a parliament to ratify the draft *constitution of the new *Irish Free State. The pact was an agreement between * Collins and de *Valera (20 May), under which the two wings into which *Sinn Féin had been split by the *Anglo-Irish treaty were each to nominate candidates in proportion to their existing strength in * Dáil Éireann. A coalition government would then somehow resolve the constitutional question. The agreement, reflecting Collins's desperate desire to avoid *civil war, alarmed the British government and dismayed his cabinet colleagues. The election result, with 239,193 votes cast for pro-treaty pact candidates and 133,864 for anti-treaty pact candidates, made clear that public opinion was on the side of the pragmatists. The most striking feature of the outcome, however, was the large number of votes (247,276) cast for candidates--*Labour, *Farmers' Party, independents--who did not belong to either wing of Sinn Féin.

Pairlement Chloinne Tomáis , see LITERATURE IN IRISH.

palatine jurisdiction , a 17th-century term applied to major medieval seigniorial jurisdictions that included all or most of the pleas and prerogatives elsewhere reserved to the crown (see LIBERTIES). Although palatinates were ultimately subject to royal authority, in practice royal officials were excluded from them. However, four royal pleas and some prerogatives were reserved to the crown. The palatine lord issued writs in his own name, and appointed justices to determine pleas in his court. The last major palatinate, in Tipperary, was abolished in 1716, following the flight and attainder of the 2nd duke of *Ormond. CAE

Palatines, Protestant refugees from the Rhineland palatinate in Germany who arrived in England in 1709. Eight hundred and twenty-one families, containing more than 3,000 persons, were sent on to Ireland. By 1720 only 162 families remained. Of these 103 were settled on the Southwell estate in Co. Limerick, and 35 on the estate of Abel Ramm in Co. Wexford, with smaller groups in Co. Cork and in Dublin. The relative failure of the project was attributed by some to fraud on the part of the commissioners entrusted with the settlement's finances. A more important reason, apart from the inherent difficulties of promoting settlement in an underdeveloped and unwelcoming environment, was possibly that the settlement of foreign Protestants was a * Whig enthusiasm; *Tories were less susceptible to appeals for international Protestant solidarity, and suspicious of potentially dissenting incomers. The Limerick Palatines, despite some defections to Catholicism, remained culturally and religiously distinctive, with high rates of endogamy. They responded enthusiastically to early *Methodist preaching, and * Wesley visited them several times. In the 1820s they became the targets of sectarian hostility from local *agrarian societies. This exacerbated an already high propensity to emigrate, and by the end of the 19th century they had largely ceased to exist as a separate group.

Pale, more correctly 'English Pale', a term applied to the region around Dublin, asserting its character as a fortified area of English rule. Recent research points to a statute of *Poynings's parliament in 1495 for 'diches to be made aboute the Inglishe pale' as the term's earliest application to Ireland. (An earlier purported reference in a document of 1446 has been exposed as a Tudor interpolation.) As the English crown moved after 1400 towards a defensive, containing strategy against Gaelic Ireland, the area which was firmly under the Dublin government's control--'the land of peace' or 'maghery', as opposed to the marches or 'the land of war'--was increasingly equated with 'the four obedient shires' around Dublin. In this lowland region, comprising the medieval counties of Dublin, Meath, Louth, and Kildare which later constituted the English Pale,

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