sacramental test , the requirement that persons holding offices of trust or profit under the crown should qualify themselves by taking communion in the *Church of Ireland. First introduced in England in 1673, the test was extended to Ireland by a clause added to the anti-Catholic act of 1704 (see PENAL LAWS). The aim, however, was to exclude not Catholics, already barred from office by other means, but Protestant dissenters, and especially the *Presbyterians of Ulster. Its introduction did not initiate any significant purge of salaried officials, presumably because the concentration of patronage in the hands of the overwhelmingly Anglican landed classes had already largely excluded dissenters from this area. The real impact was rather in urban local government, where the commercial wealth of Ulster Presbyterians had previously given them a strong representation. Although Presbyterians were still eligible to sit in parliament, this exclusion from the corporations that returned many borough members (see FRANCHISE) ensured that their representation there remained negligible. Attempts by * Whig ministries, in 1719 and 1733, to repeal the test by an act of the Irish parliament were defeated by large majorities. The test was removed in 1780, a by-product of the surge of reformist agitation leading to *legislative independence.
Sadleir, John ( 1914-56), the 'suicide banker' of popular notoriety. From a prosperous Catholic family (founders of the Tipperary Joint-Stock Bank), he qualified as a lawyer and entered the world of finance and investment, in which his interests eventually extended to Sweden, Switzerland, France, and Italy. One of the MPs pledged to *independent opposition in 1852, he nevertheless accepted office as a junior lord of the treasury. As the massive frauds underlying his investment empire were about to be exposed, he poisoned himself on Hampstead Heath in February 1856. RVC
St Enda's School (Scoil Éanna) , founded in Dublin by Patrick* Pearse in 1909 to give expression to his ideals, both nationalistic and educational. He intended that the Gaelic ethos and curriculum of the school should inspire his boys to a nobility of character in which love of Ireland would be the guiding principle. Condemning contemporary intermediate education, with its rigid pedagogy, emphasis on examinations, and neglect of Irishness, as a 'murder machine', he emphasized the importance of eliciting and fostering each pupil's talent through a school regime that, while humane, yet looked to the feats of Ireland's past heroes for inspiration. KM
St Leger. Anthony, lord deputy 1540-8, 1550-1, 1553-6. With the assistance of * Cusack. St Leger supervised the establishment of the *kingdom of Ireland and the attempt to incorporate Gaelic districts by *surrender and regrant. His conciliatory policies allowed the recruitment of Irish troops for the * Boulogne expedition of 1544 and the west of Scotland expedition of 1545. The opportunity for these expansive policies was provided by St Leger's partnership with *Brabazon in widespread profiteering from dissolved monastic and confiscated rebel lands by way of speculation and undervaluation. This windfall for officials, both English and Anglo-Irish, and for local gentry, enabled St Leger to build up a personal following outside the predominant Geraldine and Butler factions. The earl of * Ormond took up the complaints of John *Alen and Robert Cowley but St Leger called their bluff at court in 1546. In his last deputyship St Leger's main task was to govern cheaply. He slashed expenditure but was unable to reduce the army much below 1,000 because of wars in Ulster and the midlands. St Leger's earlier land transactions now rebounded when William * Fitzwilliam brought widespread corruptions to light in 1556. St Leger was dismissed, tried, and surcharged £5,000. HM
St Patrick's cathedral , Dublin, the 'national' cathedral of the *Church of Ireland, originally the site of a pre-*Norman parish church immediately outside the city walls. Archbishop John*Cumin built a collegiate church here which was dedi