The Oxford Companion to Irish History

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Wadding, Luke ( 1588-1657), Franciscan scholar and a leading light in the *Irish college movement. Wadding founded St Isidore's for Irish Franciscans in Rome in 1625 and with the assistance of Cardinal-Protector Ludovisi attached a college for diocesan clergy next door in 1627. Under Wadding's influence Irish Franciscan colleges were established in Prague ( 1629), Vielun, Poland ( 1645), Paris ( 1653). and Capranica, Italy ( 1656). However, dissension hit the secular college at Rome, with a Gaelic Irish coterie working to oust him from the rectorship.

In 1642 Wadding secured a subsidy for Owen Roe *O'Neill to return home and was subsequently appointed Roman agent to the *Confederate Catholics. He encouraged Innocent X to send * Rinuccini but considered the nuncio's excommunication of the supreme council in 1648 a mistake. Wadding edited the works of St Francis and the medieval scholar Duns Scotus (whom he claimed as Irish), and wrote a history of the order, Annales Minorum ( 1625-54). HM

Wadding, Luke (c. 1628-1691), Catholic ecclesiastic. Vicar-general of the south-eastern diocese of Ferns from 1668 and coadjutor (assisting) bishop from 1671, Wadding succeeded to the bishopric in 1678 but was not consecrated until 1683/4 because of the tensions associated with the *Popish Plot. Like Oliver *Plunkett he was one of a new generation of bishops appointed to resume the work of reorganizing the Irish church along *Counter-

Reformation lines after the disruption of the *Cromwellian years and the uncertainties of the period immediately following the *Restoration. His A Small Garland of Pious and Godly Songs was published in Ghent in 1684.

wake , a festive gathering round the body of a dead person prior to burial. Relatives, neighbours, and friends gathered to spend a night in drinking, singing, dancing, story-telling, and other amusements. Similar festive gatherings have been reported in both European and non-European societies from early times. Within Ireland itself they were to be found, at least up to the early 19th century, in Protestant Ulster as well as elsewhere. The custom can be interpreted as a means of honouring the dead person by a last feast in his or her honour. Alternatively it has been seen as an assertion of continuity and vitality in the face of mortality, a perspective which helps to explain the explicit sexual content of some of the rituals and games reported at Irish wakes. From at least the early 17th century wakes were condemned by the Catholic church as occasions of drunkenness, immorality, and impiety. But the tradition of a festive gathering remained strong up to the late 19th century or beyond, giving way at length to the more decorous assembly, characterized by collective prayer and expressions of sympathy, which survives in some circles up to the present.

Wales. Ireland and Wales are frequently bracketed together as 'Celtic' countries, largely on the basis of language. The Irish and Welsh languages do indeed share similarities of structure, though this fact is outweighed by the inability of the speakers of the one to comprehend the other. The Irish are 'Q' Celts (thus ceann is the word for 'head'), whereas the Welsh are 'P' Celts (their word for 'head' is pen). These linguistic divisions, however, did not prevent political and cultural ties being forged between south-eastern Ireland and south Wales during the early Christian centuries. Clear evidence of Irish links is provided by 40 *ogam stones, most of them in south Wales, testifying to the memory of Irish rulers in that area (Brycheiniog or Brecon). St David, whose main associations were also with south Wales, was mentioned regularly in Irish saints' Lives. There was an Irish translation of the Historia Brittonum. Christianity itself may also have reached Ireland from Wales. It was not until the *Viking centuries ( 800-1000) that the links between the Christian communities across the Irish Sea were seriously weakened and the Welsh scribes learned to differentiate between the Viking 'Gentiles' of Dublin ( Gynhon Dulyn) and the Irish (Gwyddl).

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