A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art

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Haacke, Hans (1936-). German *Conceptual and experimental artist, active mainly in the USA. He was born in Cologne, studied in Kassel, and first went to the USA on a Fulbright travelling scholarship in 1961, since when he has taught and exhibited widely there, living mainly in New York. His early work was much concerned with movement, light, and the reaction of objects with their environment. In the early 1960s, for example, he began making constructions in which fluids are enclosed in plastic containers in such a way that they can be seen responding to changes in temperature, etc. Wind and water have played a large role in his work and he participated in the '*Air Art' exhibition that toured the USA in 1968. From about the mid-1960s, however, he became more interested in spectator participation, the social function of art, and ecological issues. Haacke's work has often caused controvery because of his preoccupation with 'exposing systems of power and influence. His Real Time Social System of 1971 featured photographs of a large group of New York slum buildings, all owned by one firm, while captions revealed an array of holding companies, mortgage data, assessed values and property taxes. When the * Guggenheim Museum cancelled his exhibition there rather than show this work, Haacke did one which traced the various family and business ties between the Guggenheim trustees' ( Roberta Smith, "'Conceptual Art'" in Nikos Stangos, ed., Concepts of Modern Art, revised edn., 1981).

Hacker, Arthur. See NEW ENGLISH ART CLUB.

Haden, Sir Seymour. See ETCHING REVIVAL.

Haftmann, Werner (1912-). German art historian and administrator. He was born in Glowno (now in Poland) and studied at the universities of Berlin'and Göttingen. From 1935 he worked at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence. After the Second World War he settled in Hamburg, where he taught history of art and worked as a freelance writer. From 1967 to 1974 he was director of the Nationalgalerie, Berlin. His major work is Malerie im 20 Jahrhundert (2 vols, 1954; 2nd edn., 1957), translated as Painting in the Twentieth Century (2 vols., 1961; 2nd edn., 1965). This is the most detailed survey of its type, and the second English edition contains more than a thousand illustrations. His other writings are mainly monographs on 20th-century artists, including * Nolde ( 1958), * Nay ( 1960), * Wols ( 1963), * Chagall ( 1972 and 1975), and * Uhlmann ( 1975). He was also one of the organizers of the exhibition 'German Art of the Twentieth Century' at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1957.

Hague, Gemeente Museum. See GEMEENTE MUSEUM.

Haines, Lett (Arthur Lett-Haines). See MORRIS, SIR CEDRIC.

Hains, Raymond. See AFFICHISTE.

Halicka, Alicia. See MARCOUSSIS.

Hall. Fred. See NEWLYN SCHOOL.

Halley, Peter. See NEO-GEO.

Hambling, Maggi (1945-). British painter. She was born in Hadleigh, Suffolk, and studied at the East Anglian School of Art (with Cedric *Morris and Arthur Lett-Haines), 1960, Ipswich School of Art, 1962-4, Camberwell School of Art, 1964-7, and the * Slade School, 1967-9. In 1979 she wrote: 'I returned to painting in 1972 following a period of experiment with more "avant-garde" means of expression. I committed myself then to trying to

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