[A]nthropologically-speaking, migration is an irrepressible human urge. People have always wanted to move to places with more spiritual freedom, greater political liberty or higher standards of living (and the satisfaction of basic needs in their country of origin does not constitute a threshold at which the urge to migrate suddenly vanishes or loses legitimacy). The more tolerant the receiving State, the more attractive its spiritual freedom and political liberty; the richer it is, the stronger its economic pull. When tolerance and wealth go hand in hand, man-made laws can attempt to regulate migration but they cannot suppress it . . . Economically-speaking, migration represents for the individual an escape from poverty (relative or absolute) and it relieves his home country of mouths to feed and bodies to clothe and shelter--even if it does not necessarily boost its productive capacity or afford it other gains as it does the individual and the country of employment.1
These are fascinating and extraordinary times, but also precarious and unpredictable. Since 1989, there have been many political changes, particularly in Europe. With the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the great ideological barrier between East and West has been swept aside. In its place, uncertainty reigns. Many states have regained their political freedom after a long period of oppression. Many more have entered the arena of international affairs for the very first time. War has raged in the heart of Europe--in the newly independent states of the former Yugoslavia and especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Conflict and unrest have spread to many corners of what was once the Soviet Union, where nations and peoples have sought to assert themselves after a long dark period of totalitarian rule. In Africa, genocidal atrocities, on an unprecedented scale, have been committed in Rwanda. These recent events, as is often the case, have eclipsed those unchanging concerns which have constantly preoccupied the international community, such as the scourge of poverty and the continuing and widening economic divide between the poor developing countries of the South and the prosperous developed nations of the North.
In this transitional and uncertain world order, the migration of people, both involuntary and voluntary, remains a familiar and perennial concern. From the earliest times, people have migrated across frontiers for numerous and various____________________