A Source Book for Medieval Economic History

By Roy C. Cave; Herbert H. Coulson | Go to book overview

SECTION III
COMPENSATIONS, FEES, AND FINES

Introduction

A special section is devoted to compensations, fees, and fines, because these exactions are not, strictly speaking, taxes either in the feudal or in the modern sense. Some of the fees and compensations have no modern counterpart, e.g., wergild, bōt, and merchet. Many of the exactions were paid to the king, others to different grades of secular and ecclesiastical society. Not all are typically feudal, nor were they all consistently exacted. In the case of the king, lords, and ecclesiastics, fees and fines represented a substantial addition to their revenue. Many examples not quoted here will be found mentioned in other sections of Part VI, and elsewhere throughout this book.


1. A Fine for Violation of the Thracian Land Law

Vigorous measures were taken by the Eastern Empire to bring its lands back to cultivation. By causing the forfeit of uncultivated land, by increasing the taxes upon such land, by abolition of the capitation tax, and by imposing fines on those who took the coloni of another, they hoped to remedy the agrarian evils of the day. The fine of two pounds of gold on those who removed coloni was sufficiently heavy to prevent wholesale removals of cultivators.

Source: Krueger P., Codex Justinianus, p. 990 ( Berlin, 1877). -- A.D. 528-529.

XI.52.i. Throughout the whole diocese of Thrace the land tax only is binding, enrollment for the capitation tax having been abolished forever. And lest by chance it seem to coloni that the bonds of tributary status have been loosed, and that the faculty of wandering and departing to wheresoever they will has been permitted

-391-

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A Source Book for Medieval Economic History
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xiii
  • Part I - Agriculture, Forestry, And Extractive Industries 1
  • Section I - The Barbarians 3
  • Section II - Villa and Manorial Organization 14
  • Section III - Cultivation 37
  • Section IV - Produce 56
  • Section V - Forests 70
  • Section VI - The Extractive Industries 76
  • Part II - Commerce 87
  • Section I - Trade and Exchange 89
  • Section II - Fairs and Markets 112
  • Section III - Money and Prices 126
  • Section IV - Shipping and Inland Transportation 148
  • Section V - Loans and Usury 169
  • Section VI - Partnerships 183
  • Part III - Town Economy 191
  • Section I - Towns and Gilds 193
  • Section III - Craft Gilds and Industry 234
  • Appendix - Florentine Crafts Subject to Tax 258
  • Part IV - Slavery and Serfdom 261
  • Section I - Roman Law 263
  • Section II - Barbarian and Feudal Laws 270
  • Section III - Church Councils 280
  • Part V - Wealth and Property 303
  • Section I - Forms of Wealth 305
  • Section II - Private Property 325
  • Section III - Inheritance 334
  • Part VI - Taxation 347
  • Section I - Taxes and Feudal Dues 349
  • Section II - Tithes 377
  • 8- Fine of the Abbot of Croyland To Recover His Lands 391
  • Section IV - Tolls 398
  • Glossary 423
  • Bibliography 435
  • Index 447
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