Social Interaction, Social Context, and Language: Essays in Honor of Susan Ervin-Tripp

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ability to enter into intensive close contact with natives.

I believe it is possible to give even beginning students some sense of rhetorical strategies with instructional materials that are properly selected to reflect events typical of experiences that learners and those who must interact with them encounter. Through discussion and through systematic analysis of one's own interaction in culturally diverse situations, one can become aware of differences in rhetorical strategies. In the most general terms, what this analysis involves is learning to separate discourse level form from discourse level content, somewhat in the way that I have tried to do it in my examples. There is some evidence, however, to suggest that by having been exposed to language learning experiences a person gains a better sense of how to go about doing this and thus to learn from interactive experience. It is in this sense that language instruction may prepare us for meeting the cognitive demands of multicultural environments.


REFERENCES

Gumperz, J. J. ( 1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Gumperz, J. J., Jupp, T. C., & Roberts, C. ( 1979). Crosstalk: A study of cross-cultural communication. Southall, England: National Centre for Industrial Language Training.

Kaplan, R. B. ( 1968). Contrastive grammar: Teaching composition to the Chinese student. Journal of English as a Second Language, 3( 1), 1-13.

Lambert, R. (Ed.). ( 1987). Foreign language instruction: A national agenda. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 490.

Lange, D. L. ( 1987). "The language teaching curriculum and a national agenda". In R. Lambert (Ed.), Foreign language instruction: A national agenda. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 490.

Larsen-Freeman, D. ( 1987). Recent innovations in language teaching methodology. In R. Lambert (ed.), Foreign language instruction: A national agenda. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 490.

Lehmann, W. P., & Jones, R. L. ( 1987). "The humanistic basis of second language learning". In R. Lambert (Ed.), Foreign language instruction: A national agenda. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 490.

McLendon, S. ( 1982). "Meaning, rhetorical structure and discourse organization in myth". In D. Tannen (Ed.), Analyzing discourse: Text and talk (pp. 284-305). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. ( 1981). Narrative literacy and face in interethnic communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Tedlock, D. ( 1983). Spoken word and the work of interpretation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Underwood, C. F. ( 1986). The Indian witness: Narrative style in courtroom testimony. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Young, L. ( 1994). Crosstalk in Sino-American relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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