1971). The trend has been toward developing greater specificity in purchase-of- care procedures and tightening controls to ensure that the public welfare agency is actually getting what it contracted for.


SUMMARY

Because the social insurance programs cover only a limited number of the contingencies that result in income loss for the family, further income maintenance programs in the form of public assistance are necessary.

The assistance program directly affecting children is Aid to Families of Dependent Children. A precursor of the program, developed by the individual states earlier in the twentieth century, was known as the mothers' aid or mothers' pension program. The development of such a program was encouraged by the passage of legislation prohibiting child labor and by legislation making school attendance compulsory. During the Great Depression, the bankruptcy of state programs resulted in the acceptance by the federal government of responsibility for support, and the Social Security Act in 1935 provided for grants to the state for a program of assistance to dependent children.

Currently, the AFDC is a program in which service is offered directly to the recipient by the county, supervised by the state, and supported by local, state, and federal funds. The federal government, in administering its grants-in-aid reimbursement, has set certain minimum requirements with which the states, requesting reimbursement, must comply. Such requirements protect the recipient and establish some broad uniform standards. However, essential details of the program are left to the discretion of the individual states, and there is considerable variation in the program from state to state.

The program is designed to provide an income for children who are "needy" because their fathers are absent from the home, disabled, or unemployed. "Need" is determined by the state and is defined as the difference between an assistance budget for the family, computed by the local agency, and family income from all sources.

In December 1977, the program, available in every county in the United States, offered assistance to 8 million children and some 3 million parents. The typical AFDC family consisted of a mother and three children and required assistance because of family disruption (divorce, desertion, separation). The family had attempted to maintain itself without recourse to assistance for a period of some five months and could expect to be on assistance for a little over two years. During its time on assistance, the family would have attempted to live on a budget below the amount determined as the "poverty index" level for a family of that size.

In addition to the problem of living on a limited income, most AFDC families have additional problems of health, housing, and child care. The largest percentage of the children face the problem of living in a family without a father.

The program has succeeded in its major aim of maintaining dependent children in their own homes under the care of their mothers. It is less successful in keeping the children in school through high school graduation. Although AFDC children are ahead of their parents educationally, they are behind their non- AFDC peers.

-146-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 724

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.