with the social workers. The agency has found a low-keyed approach most helpful, teaching child care, for instance, not in a didactic fashion but at a point where a mother has difficulty in child discipline.

SUMMARY
Out-of-wedlock births are the principal source of children for adoption. Consequently adoption agencies are very much involved with the problem of the single pregnant woman.Although the number of illegitimacies has increased over the 1960s, the rate of increase has diminished. The rate among nonwhites is considerably higher than that among whites, largely for historical and socioeconomic reasons.The single pregnant woman needs medical, housing, and financial help as well as help in preparing for the birth of the child and in deciding whether to keep the child or to give it tip for adoption. The agency provides a variety of services to meet these needs and also attempts to help the putative father.Studies show that the woman who keeps her child is more apt to be nonwhite, lower-class, and limited in education. There is limited support for the contention that she is likely to be somewhat less mature than the woman who gives up the child.Follow-up studies of the mothers who keep their children show that care is adequate and child development generally normal. However, such children are at a developmental disadvantage when compared with children who have been placed for adoption. The mother who keeps her child faces essentially the same problems as mothers who have lost their husbands.Among the problems noted were
The continuing ambivalence about offering the necessary help and services to the unmarried mother and the out-of-wedlock child.
The changing sex norms, which increase the risk of such pregnancies.
The lack of services for some groups of women, particularly the nonwhite and the poor.
Problems concerning parental consent for services to teenage women.
Among the trends noted were
The increasing number of out-of-wedlock births but the decreasing rates for all groups except white teenage women.
The decreasing number of children born out of wedlock surrendered for adoption.
The increasing concern with the problem of teenage pregnancy.
The greater involvement of the putative father in decisions regarding the child and greater concern about his responsibility throughout.
The proliferation of agencies outside of social work concerned with this problem.
The development of multiservice centers to meet the needs of the teenage unmarried mother and services to the unmarried mother who keeps her child and the decrease in maternity home service.

-456-

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