Rumania, composed by lay volunteers, perform similar functions, offering "legal and social assistance services taking the form of surveillance, primarily of a preventative nature, which intervene effectively only if and when the physical development, education, upbringing, vocational training of the child are endangered by the improper behavior of the parents or their negligence manifested in its upbringing" ( United Nations, 1967, pp. 51-52).


Supranational Child Welfare

There are organizations that offer child welfare services across national boundaries. International Social Service (ISS) conducts an intercountry adoption program; the International Union for Child Welfare, publishers of the International Child Welfare Review, conducts international child-welfare seminars and conferences and stimulates child welfare research; the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, better known as UNICEF, is active in combating disease and hunger, has equipped maternal and child health centers throughout the world, has inoculated millions of children against a variety of infectious diseases, has distributed billions of pounds of food to hungry children, and has trained thousands of midwives. The United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs collects and disseminates information regarding child welfare problems throughout the world; various agencies of the United Nations offer technical assistance to nations in developing their child welfare services in a demonstration of international mutual aid.

In 1959 the United Nations adopted a Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which explicitly recognizes the right of the child to grow up with affection and acceptance with his own parents in a home that provides adequately for his physical, social, emotional, and spiritual needs. It stipulates, furthermore, that the child should be given special protection by the community against all forms of neglect, abuse, and exploitation. The Declaration of the Rights of the Child stands as an explicit statement of what the people of the world hope they can achieve for their children.

In December 1976, the General Assembly of the United Nations passed a resolution declaring 1979 the International Year of the Child. The International Year of the Child was the twentieth anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The objectives in designating 1979 as the International Year of the Child were to heighten the concern about children's needs and intensify efforts to meet these needs. The effort made in behalf of children, as compared with competing priorities, is miniscule, however.

At its annual meeting in June 1978, the executive board of UNICEF allocated $207.5 million for projects in 102 countries and territories. This total budget was the equivalent of the amount that was being spent by the world on armaments in approximately five hours at that time.


SUMMARY

The problems that require child welfare services are universal. The services available in each country to meet children's needs are a function of such factors

-665-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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