The Psychology of Touch

By Morton A. Heller; William Schiff | Go to book overview
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strained by an unfamiliar display that provides no retrieval cues. (3) The relative difficulty of recognition and production (recall) is governed by the presence or absence of retrieval cues. Without prior cuing, production is thus easier than recognition. The thesis is that haptic recognition is indirect and has its basis in movement or output plans.

The argument and findings have implications for developmental theories of drawing and for theories of haptic coding. They underlie the fact that drawing is not a unitary skill, and suggest how the importance of subsidiary symbolic, procedural, inferential, perceptual, and output processes can vary with apparently small differences in task information. They also have practical implications for blind children. For theories of haptic shape coding, the findings imply first that models need to distinguish between different forms of haptic shape; and second, that for configurations of the kind discussed here, explanations have to include the conditions involved in movement processing and output plans as the basic information.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The work to which the chapter refers was supported by a grant from the Economic and Social Sciences Research Council of Great Britain, which is gratefully acknowledged.


REFERENCES

Arnheim R. ( 1969). Visual thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Berla E. P., & Butterfield L. H., Jr. ( 1977). "Tactual distinctive feature analysis: Training blind students in shape recognition and in locating shapes on a map". Journal of Special Education, 11, 336-346.

Byrne R. W., & Salter E. ( 1983). "Distances and directions in cognitive maps of the blind". Canadian Journal of Psychology, 37, 293-299.

Cox M. V. ( 1986). "The child's point of view". The development of language and cognition. London: Harvester Press.

Craig J. C., & Sherrick C. E. ( 1982). "Dynamic tactile displays". In W. Shiff & E. Foulke (Eds.), Tactual perception: A source book. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Davidson P. W. ( 1972). "The role of exploratory activity in haptic perception: Some issues, data and hypotheses". Research Bulletin, American Foundation for the Blind, 24, 21-28.

Diewert G. L., & Stelmach G. E. ( 1978). "Perceptual organization in motor learning". In G. E. Stelmach (Ed.), Information processing in motor control and learning. New York: Academic Press.

Freeman N. H. ( 1980). Strategies of representation in young children. London: Academic Press.

Freeman N. H., & Cox M. V. (Eds.). ( 1985). Visual order: The nature and development of visual representation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Gibson J. J. ( 1971). "The information available in pictures". Leonardo, 4, 27-35.

Gombrich E. H. ( 1970). Art and illusion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Goodenough F. ( 1926). The measurement of intelligence by drawing. Yonkers, NY: World Books.

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