Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy

By Lewis P. Lipsitt | Go to book overview

& Cairns, 1970). Although Stayton et al. ( 1973) have reported differential crying to the mother and a stranger in the second quarter year of life, the percentage of subjects showing this differentiality is small. More significant results may emerge through the use of HR.

Several other emotions might be fruitfully indexed with HR. Bower 1971), for example, found HR to be sensitive to manipulations that induced surprise in young infants of various ages. The interesting finding in animals of marked bradycardia, cited earlier, may illuminate the psychophysiology of infant depression following maternal loss (such as still occurs in humans, unfortunately, after late adoptions, divorce, or maternal death). Laughter and smiling are still other emotional responses that may yield interesting relationships with HR.

For years, psychologists have postulated physiological activation as one of the defining criteria of emotion. Although none of the research we have discussed suggests that HR change is specific to any given emotion, or to emotions in general, it seems clear that under certain circumstances the sensitivity of the HR response under emotionally stimulating circumstances has been demonstrated. It remains for future research to document the applications and limitations of this response. Nevertheless, it seems a fair conclusion at this time to suggest the addition of cardiac response measurement to the tools of the student of infant emotion.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research has been supported by grants MH 19053 and MH 23556 from the National Institutes of Mental Health, by Training Grant MH 08297, and by faculty research funds awarded by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Denver.


REFERENCES

Ainsworth, M. "Patterns of attachment behavior shown by the infant in interaction with his mother". Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1964, 10, 51-58.

Anders, T., Emde, R., & Parmelee, A. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and criteria for scoring of states of sleep and wakefulness in newborn infants. Los Angeles: UCLA Brain Information Service, 1971.

Anderson, D., & Brady, J. V. "Prolonged preavoidance effects upon blood pressure and heart rate in the dog". Psychosomatic Medicine, 1973, 35, 4-12.

Apgar, V. "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Research in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 1953, 32, 260-267.

Appel, M. Binocular parallax in the human infant. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 1971.

Arnold, M. Emotion and personality. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960. Vols. I and II.

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Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Contributors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant 1
  • Acknowledgments 26
  • References 26
  • Comments on "Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant" 32
  • References 34
  • 2: Infancy, Biology, and Culture 35
  • References 53
  • Comments on "Infancy, Biology, and Culture" 55
  • References 57
  • 3: Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case 59
  • References 77
  • Comments on "Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case" 80
  • References 85
  • 4: From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior 87
  • Acknowledgments 103
  • References 103
  • Comments on "From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior" 105
  • References 106
  • A Reply to Freedman 107
  • References 108
  • 5: Developmental Psychobiology Comes of Age: A Discussion 109
  • References 126
  • 6: Three Themes in Develomental Psychobiology 129
  • References 137
  • Author Index 139
  • Topical Index 143
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