Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy

By Lewis P. Lipsitt | Go to book overview

. . . the area of instrumental function concerns relations of the system to the situation outside the system, to meeting the adaptive conditions of its maintenance of equilibrium, and instrumentally establishing the desired relations to external goal objects. The expressive area concerns the "internal" affairs of the system, the maintenance of integrative relations between the members, and regulation of the patterns and tension levels of its component units [p. 47].

Within this instrumental-expressive dichotomy lies a great array of possibilities, in that the modal men and modal women of a society can conceivably vary from extreme male-instrumental and female-expressive to near equal combinations of each. However, the evidence is that reversals in these male and female modalities within a society is not probable.

Said another way, we are acknowledging here the importance of social learning and societal input in the patterning of variation in male and female roles, but we are at the same time emphasizing that societal institutions do not arise, as it were, out of the blue; and that world-wide consistencies in institutionalized male-female roles appear to reflect phylogenetically adaptive differences in the sexes, differences that may already be seen in their incipient forms in very early infancy.


REFERENCES

Beekman, S. The relation of gazing and smiling behavior to status and sex in interacting pairs of children. Unpublished master's thesis, Committee on Human Development, University of Chicago, 1970.

Brazelton, T. B., & Freedman, D. G. The Cambridge neonatal scales. In J. J. van der Werff ten Bosch (Ed.), "Normal and abnormal development of brain and behavior". Leiden: Leiden University Press, 1971.

Caudill, W., & Weinstein, H. "Maternal care and infant behavior in Japan and America". Psychiatry, 1969, 32, 12-43.

Chance, M., & Jolly, C. J. Societies of monkeys, apes and men. New York: Dutton, 1970.

Chiang, I. The Chinese eye; an interpretation of Chinese painting. London: Methuen, 1960.

Chomsky, N. A. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1965.

Erikson, E. H. Life History and the historical moment. New York: Norton, 1975.

Freedman, D. G. Human infancy: An evolutionary perspective. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974.

Fuller, J. L., & Thompson, W. R. Behavior genetics. New York: Wiley, 1960.

Garai, J. E., & Scheinfeld, A. "Sex differences in mental and behavioral traits". Genetics of Psychology Monographs, 1968, 77, 169-299.

Goldstein, K. The organism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1963.

Green, N. An exploratory study of aggression and spacing behavior in two preschool nurseries: Chinese-American and European-American. Unpublished master's thesis, Committee on Human Development, University of Chicago, 1969.

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Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Contributors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant 1
  • Acknowledgments 26
  • References 26
  • Comments on "Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant" 32
  • References 34
  • 2: Infancy, Biology, and Culture 35
  • References 53
  • Comments on "Infancy, Biology, and Culture" 55
  • References 57
  • 3: Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case 59
  • References 77
  • Comments on "Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case" 80
  • References 85
  • 4: From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior 87
  • Acknowledgments 103
  • References 103
  • Comments on "From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior" 105
  • References 106
  • A Reply to Freedman 107
  • References 108
  • 5: Developmental Psychobiology Comes of Age: A Discussion 109
  • References 126
  • 6: Three Themes in Develomental Psychobiology 129
  • References 137
  • Author Index 139
  • Topical Index 143
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