Judicial Control of the European Communities

By Gerhard Bebr | Go to book overview

2
Nature and Composition of the Court

NATURE OF THE COURT

THE above brief sketch sufficiently indicates that the Communities are unique organisations which elude any abstract classification either in terms of State institutions or of traditional international organisations.1 Their unique feature is especially well evidenced by the powers which the Communities exercise independently of the Member States and in specific instances directly over enterprises and individuals.2 Since the Communities are not traditional international organisations, the Court may not be compared with an international tribunal.3 It is a unique court which has

____________________
1
For a sharp and excellent refutation of such futile attempts to subsume the ECSC under traditional concepts see particularly De Visscher, Le Droit Public de la Communauté Européenne de Charbon et de l'Acier ( 1956) especially at pp. 12-13, 59, but also at pp. 3, 85; Gaudet, "'La structure juridique de la Communauté Européenne du Charbon et de l'Acier'", Faculté Internationale de Droit Comparé, Sess. été pp. 1, 8 (mim.) ( Sept. 1958); Héraud, "'Compte rendu des séances'", Actes Officiels Vol. 2. ( 1958) 299, at pp. 364, 366-367.

Similar attempts to subsume the Communities under traditional forms of federalism are firmly rejected, for example, by Schlochauer, "'Zur Frage der Rechtsnatur der Europäschen Gemeinschaft für Kohle und Stahl'", Rechtsfragen der Internationalen Organisationen Festschrift für Hans Wehberg ( Schätzel and Schlochauer eds.) ( 1956) at pp. 361, 371. '. . . Obwohl das nach der ersten Handlungsphase überreichte Memorandum der französischen Delegation vom 10. August 1950noch von einer 'lien fédéral' sprach, haben die Delegationen davon abgesehen, das Zusammempiel der Organe konsequent nach der bekannten Form bundesstaatlichen Verfassungsrechts zu konstruieren . . .' citing Mosler; and particularly by Jänicke, Berichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht ( 1958) 2 Heft at pp. 131-132.

2
ECSC Treaty, Arts. 47; 49; 50 (2); 53 (a); 54, para. 5; 60; 61; 63; 64; 65; 66. EEC Treaty, Arts. 85-87. Euratom Treaty, especially Arts. 52 (2) (a); 53, para. 2; 68; 69; 79; 81; 83 (1) (2); 87.
3
As to the nature of the Court see above all the German Report on the EEC p. 146; conclusions of the Advocate-General Lagrange in Judgment No. 8/55 (Fédéchar c. Haute Autorité) 2 Recueil 231, at p. 263 ( 1955-56); Riese, "'Die Verfahrensordnung des Gerichtshofes der Europäischen Gemeinschaft für Kohle und Stahl'", Neue Juristische Wochenschrift Vol. 6 ( 1953) 521; Cartou, "'Le Marché Commun et la Technique du Droit Public'", Revue du Droit Public et de la Science Politique (hereinafter cited R.D.P.) Vol. 74 ( 1958) 186 at p. 201 reiterated in his Le Marché Commun et le Droit Public p. 53.

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