East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation

By T. R. McClanahan; T. P. Young | Go to book overview

Prospects and Conclusions

In the past decade there has been both an increase in understanding of the conservation value of East Africa's high mountains, and an increase in efforts to actually conserve them. The desire to act seems to be there, but the ability to act is still hampered by a lack of money, a lack of administrative enforcement, and a lack of political will, especially at middle levels of government. It is no exaggeration to say that future economic development in East Africa will depend in no small part on the degree to which these critical mountain ecosystems are protected and understood. Research in these ecosystems, especially the forests, is sorely lacking ( 35). One bright light has been the hydrological and soils research in Mount Kenya's forests carried out by the Laikipia Research Programme ( 31, 32). If such quality research were expanded to broader ecological questions and to other mountains, it would go a long way toward filling our embarrassing lack of knowledge about the some of the most important ecosystems in East Africa.


References
1
Agnew A. D.Q. 1984. "Cyclic changes of vegetation in the plant communities of the Aberdare Mountains, Kenya". Journal of the East African Natural History Society 75(183): 1-12
2
Bekele T. 1994. "Phytosociology and ecology of a humid Afromontane forest on the Central Plateau of Ethiopia". Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 87-98
3
Blackie J. R., Edwards K. A. 1979. "General conclusions from the land use experiments in East Africa". East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal 43: 273-277
4
Butynski T. M., Kalina J. 1993. "Three new mountain national parks for Uganda". Oryx, 27: 214-224
5
Coe M. J. 1967. The Ecology of the Alpine Zone of Mount Kenya. The Hague: W. Junk
6
Hedberg O. 1951. "Vegetation belts of East African mountains". Svensk Botanishe Tidskrift. 45: 140-202
7
Hedberg O. 1961. "The phytogeographic position of the afroalpine flora. Recent Advances in Botany" 1: 914-919
8
Hedberg O. 1964. "Features of afro-alpine plant ecology". Acta Phytogeogeographica Suecica 49: 1-147
9
Hamilton A.C. 1982. The Environmental History of East Africa: a Study of the Quaternary. London: Academic Press
10
Hamilton A. C., Perrott R.A. 1981. "A study of the altitudinal zonation in the montane forest belt of Mount Elgon, Kenya/Uganda". Vegetatio 45: 107-125
11
Kigomo B.N. 1980. "Crown-bore diameter relationship of Juniperus procera (cedar) and its application to stand density control and production survey in natural stands". East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal 46: 27-37
12
Kigomo B. N. 1985. "Diameter increment and growth of Podocarpus trees in natural forests". Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series B 6: 113-121
13
Kigomo B.N. 1987. "The growth of camphor" ( Ocotea usambarensis Engl.) in plantation in the eastern Aberdare range, Kenya. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal 52: 141-147
14
Kingdon J. 1990. Island Africa. London: William Collins Sons
15
Levin S. 1994. "Forum: perspectives on sustainability". Ecological Applications 4: 545-589
16
Lovett J. C., Prins E. 1995. "Estimation of land-use changes on Kitulo Plateau, Tanzania using satellite imagery". Oryx 29

-423-

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East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Introduction vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • Contents in Brief xiii
  • Contents xv
  • Section I: Environmental and Human History 1
  • Chapter 1 - Historical Ecology 3
  • References 14
  • Chapter 2 - Paleoecology of Humans and Their Ancestors 19
  • References 34
  • Section Ii: Marine Ecosystems 37
  • Chapter 3 - Oceanic Ecosystems and Pelagic Fisheries 39
  • References 65
  • Chapter 4 - Coral Reefs and Nearshore Fisheries 67
  • References 98
  • 5 - Intertidal Wetlands 101
  • References 127
  • Section Iii: Inland-Water Ecosystems 131
  • Chapter 6 - Rivers and Streams 133
  • References 165
  • Chapter 7 - Saline and Freshwater Lakes of the Kenyan Rift Valley 171
  • References 187
  • Chapter 8 - The Great Lakes 191
  • References 214
  • Chapter 9 - Freshwater Wetlands and Marshes 217
  • References 238
  • Section Iv: Grass, Shrub, and Woodland Ecosystems 241
  • Chapter 10 - Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems 243
  • References 270
  • Chapter 11 - Savanna Ecosystems 273
  • References 297
  • Chapter 12 the Miombo Woodlands 299
  • References 323
  • Section V: Forest Ecosystems 327
  • Chapter 13 - Coastal Forests 329
  • References 358
  • Chapter 14 - Riverine Forests 361
  • References 381
  • Chapter 15 - Mid-Elevation Forests: a History of Disturbance and Regeneration 385
  • References 399
  • Chapter 16 - High Montane Forest and Afroalpine Ecosystems 401
  • References 423
  • Concluding Remarks 425
  • Glossary 427
  • Index 433
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