Lynn Nicholas, The Rape of Europa:
The Fate of Europe's Treasures in the
Third Reich and the Second World War
( New York: Alfred Knopf, 1994), 68-69.
Mühlmann interview by
Bernard Taper, 20 August 1947. Protocol provided to
the author by Bernard Taper.
(BHSA), MK 44778, Buchner's recollection, "Bergung des Genter Altars
der Gebrüder van Eyck," 15 June 1945. See also Theodore Rousseau, Detailed Interrogation Report (DIR)
No. 2: Ernst Buchner ( Washington,
DC: Office of Strategic Services
[OSS], Art Looting Investigation
Report [ALIU], 31 July 1945), 3.
For portrayals of the art world that
reflect the qualities noted above, see Frank McDonald novel, Provenance
( New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1979), 124. See also Peter Watson, The Caravaggio Conspiracy ( New
York: Doubleday, 1984); Peter Watson
, Sotheby's: The Inside Story ( New
York: Random House, 1997); and Robert Lacey, Sotheby's: Bidding for
Class ( Boston: Little Brown, 1998).
George Steiner writes of the pervasive
view prior to World War I that "education would ensure a steadily rising
quality of life. Where culture flourished, barbarism was, by definition, a
nightmare from the past." George Steiner
, In Bluebeard's Castle: Some
Notes Towards the Redefinition of Culture ( New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1971), 30, 76.
See Sterling Callisen to Whitney
Shepardson, Chief, Special Intelligence Branch, OSS, 19 February 1945. Documents provided to the
author by the family of OSS officer Sterling Callisen.
Fritz Ringer, Decline of the German
Mandarins: The German Academic
Community, 1890-1933 ( Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 1969); Max Weinreich, Hitler's Professors: The
Part of Scholarship in Germany's
Crimes against the Jewish People ( New
York: Yiddish Scientific Institute
(YIVO), 1946); Alice Gallin, Midwives to Nazism: University Professors
in Weimar Germany ( Macon, GA: Mercer, 1986); and more specifically, James Dow and
eds., The Nazification of an Academic
Discipline: Folklore in the Third Reich
( Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1994). In a related case, some
scholars have noted that Albert Speer
was perhaps saved from the gallows at
Nuremberg because of his persona as
an artist/intellectual. See the discussion in Paul Jaskot, Oppressive Architecture: The Interest of the SS in the
Monumental Building Economy ( New
York: Routledge, 1999).