In a late development, that officer's testimony was withdrawn because
he was already under "administrative investigation" in his department. The
prosecution's intent of seeking sentence enhancements bowed to administrative niceties unrelated to the merits of the case.
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is
the principal source of support.
The mentality here is reminiscent of Robert Carter's interviews with
juvenile officers in Los Angeles. One of them derides academic theories of
crime and delinquency, maintaining that only street cops can appreciate what
causes crimes: "I've heard all the theories of crime. Let me tell you, crime is
caused by assholes. That's the asshole theory." Quoted in Robert M. Carter, "The Police View of the Juvenile Justice System", in The Juvenile Justice System,
Malcolm W. Klein ( Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1976), p. 124.
California State Task Force on Gangs and Drugs, Final Report
( Sacramento: California Council on Criminal Justice, 1989), p. viii.
Delinquency and Society ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990), p. xi.
An excellent text is that by Herbert C. Covey,
Scott Menard, and Robert J. Franzese, Juvenile Gangs ( Chicago: Thomas, 1992). George Knox
produced a massive text for criminal justice programs, An Introduction to Gangs
( Berrien Springs, Mich.: Van de Vere, 1991); and Arnold Goldstein wrote
another aimed at psychology students, Delinquent Gangs: A Psychological
Perspective ( Champaign, Ill.: Research Press, 1991). Equally important is Irving
Spergel's forthcoming review of the literature, as well as his chapter, "Youth
Gangs: Continuity and Change", in Crime and Justice: An Annual Review, vol. 12, ed.
Michael Tonry and
Norval Morris ( Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1990), pp. 171-267.
Throughout the book, I'll use synonyms for gangs, gang members, and
The Youth Development and Delinquency Prevention Administration.
Some years later I learned the proper phrase for this process from Bill