contemporary history, as it will always continue to be. Another notable service in a different field, that of Mackinder, was rendered by Isaiah Bowman in his book The New World, with its masterly presentation, renewed in successive editions, of the world as it was in the years following the Paris Peace Conference. Three other names which European students of contemporary history hold in especial honor are those of James Brown Scott, who through his studies on international law and diplomacy and through his strongly-marked and engaging personality laid a whole generation of students in his debt; of Archibald Cary Coolidge, the first editor of Foreign Affairs, who set a standard for that quarterly periodical which was, and remains, a challenge to all others in that field; and of James T. Shotwell, whose constructive labors in connection with the Geneva Protocol of 1924 and the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1929 have earned for him a special niche in the temple of the peacemakers.
IT would carry us too far to trace the course of international politics in Europe during the twenty-one years between the close of World War I and the opening of World War II. A brief summary must suffice.
That period divides itself sharply into two phases. The first was the phase of British-French hegemony which arose out of the Peace Conference and ended with the evacuation of the Rhineland by the French and British forces in 1929 and the startling first successes of the National Socialists in the German elections which followed almost immediately after. It is perhaps misleading to describe these years as a period of dual hegemony, since the two Powers were in fundamental disagreement all the time and their open bickering was all too frequent. Ramsay MacDonald in 1923-24 and Austen Chamberlain in the following years, each in