TOYNBEE'S MODERN SYNTHESIS
NOTABLE among recent attempts to draw together the frayed strands of the thread of history is Arnold Toynbee's imposing philosophy of history. The grandeur of its scope, the breadth of its scholarship, and the timeliness of its concern for the survival of present civilization have all contributed to its dramatic influence.
Worked out over a period of years,1 Toynbee's thought includes suggestions of many interpretations of history, with acknowledged indebtedness to classicism and the Bible. In the most general terms it emphasizes two diverse but equally evident aspects of history: first, a number of movements in varied forms of rise and decline-of communities, states, civilizations; second, certain lines of continuity which run through the patterns of rise____________________