Education and Society in Germany

By H. J. Hahn | Go to book overview

government. Moreover, previous reforms carried out under the Empire should not be underestimated; we can now discern in them a more modernist, reformist trend than previous research would have led us to expect.

On the whole, the Weimar Republic arouses more interest on account of its contradictions rather than its genuine reforra projects. Many of its progressive ideas had their origins under the Empire, while its truly modernist phase was confined to the first two or three years of its existence. At the same time, the Republic must be seen as providing a springboard for developments which were to foreshadow racist and fascist advances during the Third Reich. Here, too, care must be taken not to disregard the potential which had accumulated prior to Hitler's rise to power. Chapter 4 will discuss to what extent the mandarin community can be held responsible for the decline into barbarity.


Notes
1.
O. Spengler ( 1923), Der Untergang, des Abendlandes, 33rd edn, Munich, vol. 1, pp. 468f.
2.
Cf. F. K. Ringer ( 1969), The Decline of the German Mandarins, The German Academic Community 1890-1933, Cambridge, Mass., chaps 4, 6, 7.
3.
Cf. F. Tönnies ( 1887), Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Abhandlung des Communismus und des Socialismus als empirischer Culturformen, Leipzig; H. Plessner ( 1924), Grenzen der Gemeinschaft, Bonn.
4.
Quoted from Ringer, Decline, p. 356.
5.
For a more detailed study cf. R. H. Samuel and R. Hinton Thomas ( 1949), Education and Society in Modern Germany, London, pp. 122f.
6.
Ringer, Decline, p. 387.
7.
J. Herf ( 1984), Reactionary Modernism. Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich, Cambridge, chap. 1.
9.
E. Spranger ( 1928), Der deutsche Klassizismus und das Bildungsleben der Gegenwart, 2nd edn, Erfurt, p. 5.
10.
K. Löwith ( 1989), Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach 1933. Ein Bericht, Frankfurt/M., p. 114.
11.
F. Nicolin ( 1978), 'Theodor Litt', in J. Speck (ed.), Geschichte der Pädagogik des 20. Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, vol. ' 2, p. 80.
12.
Ibid., p. 82.
13.
T. Litt ( 1919), Individuum und Gemeinschaft, Leipzig.

-63-

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