government. Moreover, previous reforms carried out under the Empire should not
be underestimated; we can now discern in them a more modernist, reformist trend
than previous research would have led us to expect.
On the whole, the Weimar Republic arouses more interest on account of its
contradictions rather than its genuine reforra projects. Many of its progressive ideas
had their origins under the Empire, while its truly modernist phase was confined to
the first two or three years of its existence. At the same time, the Republic must be
seen as providing a springboard for developments which were to foreshadow racist
and fascist advances during the Third Reich. Here, too, care must be taken not to
disregard the potential which had accumulated prior to Hitler's rise to power.
Chapter 4 will discuss to what extent the mandarin community can be held responsible for the decline into barbarity.
O. Spengler ( 1923), Der Untergang, des Abendlandes, 33rd edn, Munich, vol. 1, pp. 468f.
Cf. F. K. Ringer ( 1969), The Decline of the German Mandarins, The German
Academic Community 1890-1933, Cambridge, Mass., chaps 4, 6, 7.
Cf. F. Tönnies ( 1887), Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Abhandlung des Communismus und des Socialismus als empirischer Culturformen, Leipzig; H. Plessner ( 1924), Grenzen der Gemeinschaft, Bonn.
Quoted from Ringer, Decline, p. 356.
For a more detailed study cf. R. H. Samuel and
R. Hinton Thomas ( 1949), Education and Society in Modern Germany, London, pp. 122f.
Ringer, Decline, p. 387.
J. Herf ( 1984), Reactionary Modernism. Technology, Culture and Politics in
Weimar and the Third Reich, Cambridge, chap. 1.
E. Spranger ( 1928), Der deutsche Klassizismus und das Bildungsleben der
Gegenwart, 2nd edn, Erfurt, p. 5.
K. Löwith ( 1989), Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach 1933. Ein Bericht, Frankfurt/M., p. 114.
F. Nicolin ( 1978), 'Theodor Litt', in
J. Speck (ed.), Geschichte der Pädagogik
des 20. Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, vol. ' 2, p. 80.
T. Litt ( 1919), Individuum und Gemeinschaft, Leipzig.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Education and Society in Germany.
Contributors: H. J. Hahn - Author.
Publisher: Berg Publishers.
Place of publication: Oxford.
Publication year: 1998.
Page number: 63.
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