Stalin's Lieutenants: A Study of Command under Duress

By William J. Spahr | Go to book overview
Save to active project


Vrangel's defeat supposedly marked the end of the civil war. Now the Bolsheviks, having attained power by exploiting the longing of the masses for peace, land, and bread, were faced with redeeming their promises in a country ruined and exhausted from four years of world war followed almost immediately by four years of civil strife. And to say that the civil war was ended is to categorize the events at Tambov and Kronstadt in 1921 according to some new definition of fraternal conflict.

Trotsky was to claim that he realized in late 1919 that the economic policy known as "war communism" had to be modified. Under that policy, grain and other foodstuffs were requisitioned from the peasants by the government in return for arbitrarily fixed prices well below the open market level. Peasants refusing to sell to the government on these terms were branded as "kulaks" and "counterrevolutionaries" as well as being subject to the search and seizure of their farms. Trotsky urged some degree of restoration of the home market: the peasants had to be offered some incentives, other than artificially low, fixed state prices, to surrender their grain. Lenin opposed Trotsky's proposal ( Trotsky 1930, 461-64). The "New Economic Policy" (NEP), which ameliorated the lot of the peasantry, was not announced until March 1921.


In early 1921, a widespread peasant revolt erupted in Tambov Gubernia (province) led by a Socialist Revolutionary, A. S. Antonov. The Politburo, after trying combinations of coercion and economic incentives to quell the revolt, decided in April to seek a military


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Stalin's Lieutenants: A Study of Command under Duress


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 324

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?