movement thrives on massive national political mobilization, on adopting a realistic revolutionary theory, but above all on having an ideology
of liberation which aims to give its supporters peace, development,
dignity and independence. It is willing to acknowledge mistakes and
revise its strategy but never the goal of independence. Its leadership provides the example: ever vigilant, ever loyal to the ideals of the liberation
movement and therefore the uplifting vision of the country. The vision
of successful liberation movements in Africa and in the Third World has
been egalitarian, non-discriminatory, non-repressive, non-racist and
vehemently opposed to exploitation.
Michael Crowder, "'Whose Dream was it Anyway?'", African Affairs, 86 ( 342) ( January 1987), 10.
2. See, for example, Ali Mazrui, The Africans ( Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1986). See
also Economic Commission for Africa reports and even appraisals by the OAU in the 1970s and 1980s. As an example, Edem Kodjo, former OAU Secretary-General, said,
Africa is dying. If things continue as they are only eight or nine of the present countries will survive the next few years. All other things being equal, absolute poverty,
instead of declining, is likely to gain ground. It is clear that the economy of our continent is lying in ruins . . . Our ancient continent . . . is now on the brink of disaster.
(Cited in Lloyd Timberlake, Africa in Crisis ( Philadelphia, New Society Publishers, 1986), p. 8.)
G. M. Carter and
Patrick O'Meara, 'Introduction', African Independence: The First
Twenty Five Years ( Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1985), p. xii. Also see S. K.B. Asante, 'International Assistance and International Capitalism: Supportive or
Counter Productive', in Carter and O'Meara, African Independence.
Ali Mazrui, 'Current Sociopolitical Trends', in
Frederick S. Arkhurst (ed.), Africa in
the Seventies and Eighties ( New York, Praeger Publishers, 1970), p. 49.
P. Olisanwuche Esedebe, Pan Africanism ( Washington, DC, Howard University Press, 1982), p. 199.
Ibid., p. 224. Esedebe concludes (p. 225) that the hatred of Nkrumah and his
administration 'was allowed to overshadow a question of fundamental importance.
The result was that the delegates rejected immediate political unity opting for consultation and functional co-operation.'
For a more recent evaluation of these views see Adu Boahen, African Perspective on Colonialism ( Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).
Basil Davidson, Can Africa Survive? ( Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1974), p. 17.
Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ( Washington, DC, Howard University Press, 1982), p. 205.
Leonard Thompson, The Political Mythology of Apartheid ( New Haven, Yale University
Press, 1985), p. 13.
Sir Charles Eliot, The East Africa Protectorate ( New York, Barnes & Noble, 1966), p. 92.
Philip Mitchell, The Agrarian Problem in Kenya ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1947),
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93.
Contributors: B. A. Ogot - Author, W. R. Ochieng - Author.
Publisher: James Currey.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 1995.
Page number: 22.
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