Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93

By B. A. Ogot; W. R. Ochieng | Go to book overview

situation. That SAP would exercise such an influence on the economy can hardly be viewed as surprising. Rather, the economics of structural adjustment were the logical outgrowth of the Western-orientated, capitalist structures and the patterns that made the European Economic Community the nation's dominant trading partner during the first nyayo decade, as well as in the preceding period of independent Kenya's history. Moreover, the severe economic problems that manifested themselves during the nyayo era forced government planners towards SAP. It also reflected the continued dependent nature of Kenya's economy; dependent on Western European, American and Japanese markets, development assistance and development models, Kenya would adopt SAP with less resistance than, for example, Tanzania or Zambia.

Yet perhaps the most significant characteristic of Kenya's economy during the initial nyayo decade was the fact that it was able to confront the economic crises of the period far more effectively than most African states. The continued growth of tourist receipts and the resiliency demonstrated by Kenya's small-farm sector, which had responded so remarkably to the opportunities of the Kenyatta era, in rebounding from the droughts and the negative international market conditions provide graphic examples of the underlying strengths. These, far more than SAP, allowed Kenya to survive the economic difficulties of the period without large-scale economic collapse and the resultant political turmoil that it would have produced.


Notes
1.
Dirk Berg-Schlosser and Rainer Siegler, Political Stability and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda ( Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 1990), p. 59, and World Bank, World Development Report 1989 (Washington, World Bank, 1989), p. 164.
2.
World Bank, World Development Report 1989, p. 166.
3.
Republic of Kenya, Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1965: African Socialism and Its Application to Planning in Kenya ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1965), pp. 30-31.
4.
Republic of Kenya, Development Plan 1979 to 1983 ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1979); KANU, KANU Election Manifesto 1979 ( Nairobi, KANU, 1979), p. 13.
5.
Republic of Kenya, Development Plan 1979 to 1983, pp. 1-16; KANU, KANU Manifesto, pp. 11-22.
6.
Republic of Kenya, Development Plan 1979 to 1983, p. 3.
7.
Tiyambe Zeleza, "'The Global Dimensions of Africa's Crisis: Debts, Structural Adjustment, and Workers'", Transafrican Journal of History, 18 ( 1989), pp. 3-7.
8.
Republic of Kenya, Development Plan 1989 to 1993 ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1989), p. 8.
9.
Republic of Kenya, Development Plan 1984 to 1988 ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1984), p. 41.
10.
Republic of Kenya, Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1981 on National Food Policy ( Nairobi, Government Printer, 1981), p. 1.

-183-

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Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors viii
  • Prologue on Decolonization xi
  • Notes xvii
  • Introduction the Invention of Kenya 1
  • Note 3
  • Part One the Decolonization of Kenya 1945-63 5
  • One Decolonization: A Theoretical Perspective 7
  • Conclusion 21
  • Notes 22
  • Two the Formative Years 1945-55 25
  • Conclusion: Towards an Alternative Future 43
  • Bibliography 44
  • Three: The Decisive Years 1956-63 48
  • Part Two the Kenyatta Era 1963-78 81
  • Four Structural & Political Changes 83
  • Conclusion 106
  • Appendix: Constitutional Amendments Under Kenyatta 107
  • Notes 108
  • Five - Social & Cultural Changes 110
  • Conclusion 143
  • Notes 144
  • Part Three the First Nyayo Decade 1978-88 149
  • Six the Economics of Structural Adjustment 151
  • Conclusion 182
  • Notes 183
  • Seven the Politics of Populism 187
  • Notes 213
  • Eight the Construction of a National Culture 214
  • Part Four Epilogue 1989-93 237
  • Nine Transition from Single-Party to Multiparty Political System 1989-93 239
  • Conclusion 259
  • Notes 260
  • Index 262
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