Between Self-Determination and Dependency: Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989

By Holger W. Henke | Go to book overview

NOTES

CHApTER 1
1.
This study is aware that the concept of "Third World" has increasingly become inapplicable due to the various international changes over the past decade. There are now a number of formerly developing countries -- the so-called NICs or Asian Tigers -- which have per capita incomes comparable to the industrial world. At the same time, some of the now independent republics of the former Soviet Union have reverted to what used to be considered as "Third World" living conditions. For a good discussion of the eurocentric notion "Third World" see Nohlen and Nuscheler ( 1982a, 11-24).
2.
The Maroons were Africans who had been enslaved by the Spanish during its occupation of the island. Having fled, they continued to live at various points in the island's inaccessible interior after the English took the island, and intermittently launched surprise attacks on the settlers and their plantations.
3.
Stone ( 1973, 16-21), however, arrives at his definition of classes through an empirical descriptive method, which emphasizes distribution conflicts of material and social resources as opposed to the broader Marxist view of class conflicts based on the ownership of the means of production; together with Post ( 1981, 298), the present study prefers the notion of middle strata which comprise such different positions as lawyers, doctors, senior managers, clerks, shop assistants, etc. but do not have a "defining relation to the means of production of their own".
4.
Basically we conceive structures not just as constraints to social action but acknowledge that they can also entail enabling dimensions. However, compared to industrial countries they are more constraining to the developing countries than enabling -- see also Manicas ( 1985, 309-22).
5.
See in particular, Cox seminal article ( 1981, 126-53); Cox ( 1981, 141) Gramscian notion of social forces derives from the insight that power is seen as emerging from social processes rather than taken as a given in the form of accumulated material capabilities, that is as the result of these processes"; see also Cox ( 1983, 162-75); Cox ( 1987); Linklater ( 1990, chap. 7); Walker

-174-

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