See Needless Deaths in the Gulf. Civilian Casualties During the Air
Campaign and the Violations of the Laws of War ( New York: The Middle East
Z. Brzezinski, Out of Control ( New York: Scribners, 1993), p. 166.
Kayhan Havai, 25 July, 1990, p. 2.
Khomeini's 35-page handwritten will contains harsh criticisms of
not only the Saudi rulers but also the rulers of Iraq, Morocco, and Jordan.
In it, Khomeini warns his followers about international conspirators
dressing as Muslims. For the complete text, see Kayhan Havai, 14 June 1989.
H. Amirahmadi and
N. Entessar, eds., Iran and the Arab World
( New York: St Martin's Press, 1993).
The works that have dealt with the origins of the GCC include J. A. Sandwick
, ed., The Gulf Cooperation Council ( Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987); E. R. Peterson, The Gulf Cooperation Council ( Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988); also, R. K. Ramazani, The Gulf Cooperation Council:
Records and Analysis ( Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1989). For a critique of Ramazani's interpretation, see my review of his
book in The Iranian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. IV, No. 1 ( Spring 1992), pp. 234-237.
G. Nonneman, "The GCC and Iran," in
A. Ehteshami, ed., Iran and
the World Community ( London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 1991), p. 121.
Graz subscribes to the view that Iran's GCC policy was a failure.
See L. Graz, The Turbulent Gulf ( London: I. B. Tauris & CO., 1991).
"Iran's pressure, combining the carrot and the stick, succeeded in
gradually reducing the UAE, Qatar and Oman to effective neutrality." In Nonneman, "The GCC and Iran," p. 109.
On the role of the GCC in the Iran-Iraq cease-fire, see D. Hiro, The Longest War ( New York: Routledge, 1991), chapter 10.
Financial Times, 17 March, 1989.
The Iranian President alluded to the GCC as a creation of
Western powers in his speech at the international conference on the Persian Gulf held in Tehran in 1989. See "Address by the President," in The Journal of Foreign Policy (in Farsi) ( Fall 1989), p. 396.
Graz, The Turbulent Gulf, p. 61.
S. Walt, The Origins of Alliance ( Ithaca, NY: Cornell University