In the words of historian Vyacheslav Dashichev: "We were wrong in assessing
the global situation. ... Though we were politically, militarily (via weapons supplies
and advisors), and diplomatically involved in regional conflicts, we disregarded their
influence on the relaxation of tension between the U.S.S.R. and the West." East-
West: Quest for New Relations, Literaturnaia gazeta, May 18, 1988, p. 14.
See for example, A. Kolosovskii, "Regional'nye konflikty i global'naia
bezopasnost'," Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, no. 6, 1988, especially p. 35.
See for example, Andrei Kozyrev and
Andrei Shumikhin, "East and West in the
Third World," International Affairs, March 1989.
V. Kremeniuk, "Sovetsko-amerikanskie otnosheniia i regional'nye konflikty," Aziia i afrika segodnia, no. 3. 1989, p. 6.
Mikhail S. Gorbachev, "The Realities and Guarantees of a Secure World," Pravda, September 17, 1987, pp. 1-2.
Several articles appeared after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait which openly discussed arms transferred to Iraq and the Soviet return on those transfers. Many concluded that even if arms were initially a hard currency earner, Iraq, among others
now owed the U.S.S.R. several billion dollars.
See for example: Peter Gladkov, "Merchants of Death," Moscow News, no. 17, 1990, p. 13.
Vadim Makarevsky, "The Threat from the South," New Times,
no. 34 ( August 21-27), 1990 p. 12.
According to the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Soviet Union
transferred arms to Syria worth $6,900,000,000 and arms to Libya worth
$3,600,000,000 between 1984 and 1988. World Military Expenditures and Arms
Transfers ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1989).
See Pravda, October 16, 1985, p. 4. The article refers to support for Libyan
Celestine Bohlen, "Moscow Cautions Libyan on Terror," Washington Post, May 28, 1986, pp. A1, A25.
For a detailed analysis of Soviet policy toward the Iran-Iraq war see Carol R. Saivetz
, The Soviet Union and the Gulf in the 1980s ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1989).
Pravda, April 25, 1987, p. 2.
Pravda, April 10, 1988, p. 11.
By one account, the Soviets were looking to reduce their presence by 50% and
according to another, Moscow withdrew 500 troops in December 1989 and an additional 400-500 soldiers were to leave by the end of 1990. The first report is from Radio Free Lebanon, January 16, 1990, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service,
(hereafter FBIS) Near East and South Asia (NES) 90 011, January 17, 1990, p. 33