Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology

By Pierre L. Van den Berghe | Go to book overview

which mixed types can occur. Subsystems in the society can belong in different types, as in the case of medieval Europe mentioned earlier. Different groups in the same society can be the object of different types of prejudice. Also, in the case of a society in transition, different segments of the total society (as rural versus urban) can be in different stages in the process of evolution. The isolated rural areas will tend to remain paternalistic longer than the industrial centers, for example. All these possibilities can make the over-all characterization of a total society a complex matter. But again, this does not invalidate the criterion of polarization. It is only a question of defining the boundaries of the social system or subsystem under analysis.


NOTES
1.
The labels paternalistic and competitive will be used in conjunction with the term "prejudice" when the psychological reference is emphasized and with the term "race relations" when sociological or social system factors are stressed.
2.
In agreement with Dollard, Warner, Myrdal, and others, we shall call "caste" a group which satisfies all three of the following criteria: (1) endogamy, (2) membership therein by birth and for life, and (3) a position of superiority or inferiority vis-à-vis other such groups.
3.
Professor Parsons suggested to us an important distinction between social stratification as a product of internal differentiation in the social system and social stratification imposed from the outside. In the latter case, the hierarchy is likely to be rigid. In fact, most caste or quasi-caste systems, such as estates, have their origin in conquest. The greater the disparity in physical characteristics, level of organization, technology, and so forth between conqueror and conquered, the greater is the likelihood of a caste system to arise. Of course, a caste system may perpetuate itself long after these differences have been blurred, as exemplified by India.
4.
Cf. Robert E. Park, Race and Culture ( Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950), p. 183; Bertrand W. Doyle, The Etiquette of Race Relations in the South ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

-39-

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Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 17
  • Part I - General and Theoretical 19
  • 1 - Paternalistic Versus Competitive Race Relations: an Ideal-Type Approach 21
  • Notes 39
  • 2 - Distance Mechanisms of Stratification 42
  • 3 - Hypergamy, Hypergenation, and Miscegenation 54
  • Summary 63
  • Notes 63
  • 4 - Racialism and Assimilation in Africa and the Americas 68
  • Notes 77
  • 5 - Toward a Sociology of Africa 79
  • Part II - The Americas 95
  • 6 - Stereotypes, Norms, and Interracial Behavior in São Paulo, Brazil 97
  • Notes 105
  • 7 - Ethnic Relations in Southeastern Mexico 107
  • 8 - Ethnic Membership and Cultural Change in Guatemala 137
  • Conclusion 149
  • Notes 150
  • Part III - South Africa 153
  • 9 - Research in South Africa: The Story of My Experiences with Tyranny 155
  • Notes 171
  • 10 - Apartheid, Fascism, and the Golden Age 173
  • 11 - Race Attitudes in Durban, South Africa 188
  • Summary 206
  • Notes 207
  • 12 - Racial Segregation in South Africa: Degrees and Kinds 210
  • 13 - Miscegenation in South Africa 224
  • Summary 239
  • Notes 241
  • 14 - Language and Nationalism in South Africa 244
  • Part IV - The Indian Diaspora 259
  • 15 - Indians in Natal and Fiji: a "Controlled Experiment" in Culture Contact 261
  • Notes 274
  • 16 - Asians in East and South Africa 276
  • Index 304
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