African racial hierarchy, being highest among Europeans and lowest among Africans. Women are more distant than men. Social distance is related to religion, but in a different way for each racial group. There is no clear relationship between social distance and either parental occupation or education. Europeans reject non- Europeans in situations implying equality more than Africans or Indians reject whites.
Actual contact findings generally resemble the social distance data. Europeans restrict their contacts along color lines to a greater extent than either Africans or Indians. Actual contact and social distance are related to each other, but low contact does not mean high distance, as opportunities for interracial contact in South Africa are limited.
Of all possible criteria of group membership, "race" is mentioned most often, a finding which accurately reflects the importance of color in South African society. Anti-Indian stereotypes are similar to anti-Semitic ones. Europeans tend to dichotomize between the "good" tribal African and the "spoiled" city African. Nonwhites distinguish between the bluntly oppressive Afrikaner and the hypocritically bigoted English-speaking white.
As expected, Africans and Indians are more radical in their political views than the Europeans who are in a privileged position. All racial groups agree in expecting considerable political change, mostly through violence, and in thinking that the racial situation has worsened in the last twenty years.
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Publication information: Book title: Race and Ethnicity:Essays in Comparative Sociology. Contributors: Pierre L. Van den Berghe - Author. Publisher: Basic Books. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 1970. Page number: 207.