Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology

By Pierre L. Van den Berghe | Go to book overview

African racial hierarchy, being highest among Europeans and lowest among Africans. Women are more distant than men. Social distance is related to religion, but in a different way for each racial group. There is no clear relationship between social distance and either parental occupation or education. Europeans reject non- Europeans in situations implying equality more than Africans or Indians reject whites.

Actual contact findings generally resemble the social distance data. Europeans restrict their contacts along color lines to a greater extent than either Africans or Indians. Actual contact and social distance are related to each other, but low contact does not mean high distance, as opportunities for interracial contact in South Africa are limited.

Of all possible criteria of group membership, "race" is mentioned most often, a finding which accurately reflects the importance of color in South African society. Anti-Indian stereotypes are similar to anti-Semitic ones. Europeans tend to dichotomize between the "good" tribal African and the "spoiled" city African. Nonwhites distinguish between the bluntly oppressive Afrikaner and the hypocritically bigoted English-speaking white.

As expected, Africans and Indians are more radical in their political views than the Europeans who are in a privileged position. All racial groups agree in expecting considerable political change, mostly through violence, and in thinking that the racial situation has worsened in the last twenty years.


NOTES
1.
I. D. MacCrone, in E. Hellman, ed., Handbook of Race Relations in South Africa ( Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1949), pp. 690-705; I. D. MacCrone, Race Attitudes in South Africa ( London: Oxford University Press, 1937); E. G. Malherbe , Race Attitudes and Education ( Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations, 1946); T. F. Pettigrew, "Social Distance Attitudes of South African Students," Social Forces 38 ( 1960): 246-253. In addition, there have been some

-207-

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Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 17
  • Part I - General and Theoretical 19
  • 1 - Paternalistic Versus Competitive Race Relations: an Ideal-Type Approach 21
  • Notes 39
  • 2 - Distance Mechanisms of Stratification 42
  • 3 - Hypergamy, Hypergenation, and Miscegenation 54
  • Summary 63
  • Notes 63
  • 4 - Racialism and Assimilation in Africa and the Americas 68
  • Notes 77
  • 5 - Toward a Sociology of Africa 79
  • Part II - The Americas 95
  • 6 - Stereotypes, Norms, and Interracial Behavior in São Paulo, Brazil 97
  • Notes 105
  • 7 - Ethnic Relations in Southeastern Mexico 107
  • 8 - Ethnic Membership and Cultural Change in Guatemala 137
  • Conclusion 149
  • Notes 150
  • Part III - South Africa 153
  • 9 - Research in South Africa: The Story of My Experiences with Tyranny 155
  • Notes 171
  • 10 - Apartheid, Fascism, and the Golden Age 173
  • 11 - Race Attitudes in Durban, South Africa 188
  • Summary 206
  • Notes 207
  • 12 - Racial Segregation in South Africa: Degrees and Kinds 210
  • 13 - Miscegenation in South Africa 224
  • Summary 239
  • Notes 241
  • 14 - Language and Nationalism in South Africa 244
  • Part IV - The Indian Diaspora 259
  • 15 - Indians in Natal and Fiji: a "Controlled Experiment" in Culture Contact 261
  • Notes 274
  • 16 - Asians in East and South Africa 276
  • Index 304
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