Political Cleavages: Issues, Parties, and the Consolidation of Democracy

By Alejandro Moreno | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Tables present a great amount of information that includes factor analyses to show the relevant issue dimensions, discriminant analysis to determine the main cleavage dimensions, and average party and ideological positions on both the issue dimensions and the cleavage dimensions. The difference between the latter is that issue dimensions refer to the empirical combination of issues derived from factor analysis. Issue dimensions may or may not constitute the main cleavage dimensions. Cleavage dimensions are the result of multivariate analysis that includes the issue dimensions. In some cases, the issue dimensions may constitute the main cleavage dimension; in other cases, they may combine with other factors to determine the main cleavage dimension; yet in other cases they may not contribute to defining the main cleavage dimensions.

Figures display selected information of party positions based on the average party supporters on the main dimensions of conflict. Parties are represented by a dot whose size indicates the relative proportion of party supporters in the sample. Larger dots represent relatively larger parties in terms of their support. Figures also show the average positions of left, center, and right ideological self-placements, which are tied by a dotted line that represents the inclination of the left-right axis. Except in very few cases, independent or nonpartisan voters are not displayed in the figures or the tables. Such "voters" have moderate positions on any dimension, and I decided to simply omit them from the analysis and focus on partisan constituencies, which in some cases have moderate positions too and in some cases define the main poles of conflict in society. In Chapters 4 and 5, respectively, I also plotted the average placement of selected socioeconomic groups in Latin America and advanced industrial societies. The aim is to show how education, income, and occupation are related to general positions on the economic left-right axis and the respective dimensions of political conflict.

-7-

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Political Cleavages: Issues, Parties, and the Consolidation of Democracy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Acronyms xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Acknowledgments 6
  • Notes 7
  • Chapter One - Democracy, Democratization, and Political Cleavages 9
  • Conclusion 26
  • Notes 26
  • Chapter Two - Political Cleavages in Advanced Industrial Societies 28
  • Conclusion 72
  • Notes 73
  • Chapter Three - Political Cleavages in Post-Communist Societies 76
  • Conclusion 104
  • Notes 104
  • Chapter Four - Political Cleavages in Latin America 106
  • Conclusion 148
  • Notes 148
  • Chapter Five - Conclusion: A Cross-National Comparison of Cleavages 150
  • Conclusion 164
  • Appendix A: Surveys and Question Wording 167
  • Appendix B: A Brief Description of Discriminant Analysis 182
  • References 186
  • Index 193
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