Political Cleavages: Issues, Parties, and the Consolidation of Democracy

By Alejandro Moreno | Go to book overview

and left-right materialism, and to a lesser extent education and urban-rural differences, play a role in defining political cleavages in Portugal.

Table 2.1 shows the discriminant analysis of Portuguese party electorates. In this case, only the first discriminant function is statistically significant. This function represents a cleavage dimension based on religiosity. Left-right materialist orientations also contribute to define this dimension, but with much less influence. The cleavage dimension polarizes two fields, one with strongly religious and slightly more capitalist-oriented individuals and another with secular and slightly more socialist-oriented constituencies. The party polarization shows the Social Democratic Center (CDS) and the Social Democratic Party (PSD) on the religious side and the Communist Party (PCP) on the secular side. Socialist Party supporters have a relatively moderate position on this dimension. The second discriminant function is dominated by the urban-rural division and education. However, this function is not statistically significant, and the results must be taken with caution.

Summary . The societies analyzed in this section show very strong structural cleavages. Although the Dutch society is clearly issue-oriented--it emphasizes postmodern, postmaterialist, and left-right materialism values--the analysis suggests that a religious cleavage is also very strong in that society. Ireland and Italy also have strong religious cleavages, and Belgium and Spain are characterized by strong regional cleavages. Religiosity also seems very strong in Portugal. Differences of development in northern and southern Italy do not create a regional conflict; rather, they reflect a conflict between traditionalism and religiosity on the one hand and stronger secular values on the other. The North-South division in Italy also reflects richer and poorer regional constituencies that make a class cleavage very salient. Urban-rural differences play an important role in Ireland. The so-called segmented pluralism is an important factor in the Netherlands and Belgium, where religious as well as regional and linguistic differences are translated into political conflict and competition. A strong Catholic tradition in Italy and Ireland helps explain the religious cleavages there. Differences of internal development, class conflict, urban-rural cleavages, and subcultural factors clearly shape party competition in these societies, reflecting a greater influence of the type of cleavages described by Lipset and Rokkan ( 1967) rather than strong issue-oriented cleavages. The Netherlands is perhaps the only exception.


CONCLUSION

Political cleavages in advanced industrial societies are strongly influenced by issue orientations. Most of the countries analyzed in this chapter show very

-72-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Political Cleavages: Issues, Parties, and the Consolidation of Democracy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Acronyms xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Acknowledgments 6
  • Notes 7
  • Chapter One - Democracy, Democratization, and Political Cleavages 9
  • Conclusion 26
  • Notes 26
  • Chapter Two - Political Cleavages in Advanced Industrial Societies 28
  • Conclusion 72
  • Notes 73
  • Chapter Three - Political Cleavages in Post-Communist Societies 76
  • Conclusion 104
  • Notes 104
  • Chapter Four - Political Cleavages in Latin America 106
  • Conclusion 148
  • Notes 148
  • Chapter Five - Conclusion: A Cross-National Comparison of Cleavages 150
  • Conclusion 164
  • Appendix A: Surveys and Question Wording 167
  • Appendix B: A Brief Description of Discriminant Analysis 182
  • References 186
  • Index 193
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 212

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.