To Choose a Future: Resource and Environmental Consequences of Alternative Growth Paths

By Ronald G. Ridker; William D. Watson | Go to book overview
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Explanatory Noted and Units of Measure
Symbols used in the tables:
Three dots (. . .) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported.
A dash (-----) indicates that the amount is nil or negligible.
A blank space in a table indicates that the item is not applicable.
Quads = 1015Btu
Weights:
One metric ton = 1.102 short tons; 1 long ton = 1.20 short tons.
Conversion factors:
Crude oil--1 barrel = 0.36 metric tons = 0.150 short tons
Uranium--1 short ton (U3O8) = 0.769 metric tons of uranium
One million barrels of oil per day equals:
2.1 quads (2.1 × 1015Btu) per year
2.2 exajoules (1018joules) per year
530 × 1012 kilo calories per year
50 million metric tons oil per year
76 million metric tons coal per year
57 billion cubic meters natural gas per year = 5.9 billion cubic feet per day
620 terawatt hours (109kWh) per year
Approximately heat content of various fuels and electricity:
Crude oil: 1 barrel = 5.8 million Btu
Natural gas: 1 cubic foot = 1,030 Btu
Coal--1 short ton = 24 million Btu
U3O8--1 short ton = 120 million KWh(th) = 409.4 billion Btu (gross)
Electricity: 1 kWh=3,412 Btu
energy accounting conventions:
Coal, natural gas, petroleum--Reported at Btu content of fuel
Hydroelectric and geothermal power--Reported at 10,749 Btu/kWh (e) initially, decreasing to 7,745 Btu/kWh (e)
Fossil-fuel electric power generation--Reported at 10,241 Btu/kWh(e) initially, decreasing to 7,282 Btu/kWh (e)
Nuclear electric power generation--Reported at 10,929 Btu/kWh(e) initially, decreasing to 8,415 Btu/kWh(e)
Gasified coal--Includes conversion loss equal to 20 percent of synthetic natural gas produced
Shale oil--Includes conversion loss equal to 20 percent of synthetic crude oil produced

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