statistics are an indication that using funding mechanisms seems to be an effective mechanism to promote participation by developing countries in environmental treaties, leading to universal participation.
Yet, in the case of the Desertification Convention, the Parties agreed not to establish a separate fund, but instead are relying on a Global Mechanism through which developed countries are to mobilize funding from existing sources for developing countries. 192 Whether this mechanism will be as effective an incentive as the financial mechanism used in the Montreal Protocol or the Climate Change Convention, remains to be seen.
In contrast to technical and financial assistance provisions, joint implementation as stipulated in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is still a controversial incentive. 193 CDM promotes technology transfers because in the effort to seek credits to use toward its emission reduction obligations, the developed countries will transfer environmentally sound technology to developing countries. However, it also entails a bureaucracy to certify the emission reductions of the different projects. Furthermore, some environmentalists claim it gives developed countries a license to pollute. 194 Yet, joint implementation can be limited in its use, and made applicable to contribute to compliance with only part of the quantified emission limitation for developed countries, the rest being done through domestic efforts, as the parties agreed to in the Kyoto Protocol. 195 In addition, joint implementation, just as emissions trading 196 is a market- based mechanism that has the potential of achieving low cost emission reductions while promoting sustainable development.