Capacity 21 was created to help developing countries build the capacity
to formulate and implement national programs for sustainable development; developing their own Agenda 21 plans.
214 These plans are then
harmonized with the National Environmental Action Plans which the World Bank sponsors.
215 Capacity 21 also promotes the integration of
environmental considerations into development plans. Through the use of
Environmental Management Guidelines, Capacity 21 helps countries ensure
that projects do not have negative effects on the environment.
Capacity 21 is a likely channel for increasing knowledge and capabilities
in many areas, including technical skills needed to integrate environmentally sound technology, make sustainable development plans at the
local level, and develop the environmental laws and administration needed
to implement multilateral environmental treaties. Together with UNEP, UNDP's Capacity 21 can provide governments with an integrated program
of environment and development law services as Agenda 21 urges, thereby
promoting the participation of developing countries in international environmental agreements.
An independent review of Capacity 21 was carried out in 1996. The report, on the whole, praises Capacity 21, and states that it has made excellent
progress toward fulfilling its objectives.
See Helsinki Declaration on the Environment, Mar. 11, 1989, 28 I.L.M. 1308
See Agenda 21, supra Chapter 1 note 8, ch. 38.
See Programme for Further Implementation of Agenda 21, supra Chapter 2
note 190, ¶¶ 122-30.
See NGOs, infra Chapter 8.
UNEP Information and Public Affairs Branch, UNEP IN BRIEF, Nairobi, Kenya, 1992.
See Agenda 21, supra Chapter 1 note 8, at 38.23.
See UNITED NATIONS, THE BASIC FACTS ABOUT THE UNITED NATIONS 85 ( 1987).
See Mark A. Gray, The United Nations Environment Programme: An Assessment,
20 ENVTL. L. 292 ( 1990).
See Report on the Stockholm Conference, supra Chapter 1 note 11.
United Nations, Press Release, U.N. Doc. HE/948, Feb. 12, 1997 (hereinafter
See Caldwell, supra Chapter 1 note 12, at 69; G.A. Res. 3004(XXVII), U.N.
GAOR (Dec. 15, 1972) ("Location of the Environment Secretariat").
D. W. BOWETT, THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 57,58 ( 1982).
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Equality among Unequals in International Environmental Law:Differential Treatment for Developing Countries.
Contributors: Anita Margrethe Halvorssen - Author.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 139.
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