ANGLO-GERMAN RELATIONS TO 1890
THE relations of England and Germany, as regards modern international politics, begin with the year 1740. Not that before this date the two countries were disinterested the one in the other. The captivity of Richard the Lion-Hearted in the twelfth century; the election of Richard of Cornwall as King of the Romans in the thirteenth; the appointment of Edward III as Vicar of the Empire on the eve of the Hundred Years' War; the importance of the Steelyard in London as an outpost of Hansa commerce, an experiment which insular jealousy forced Queen Elizabeth to terminate; the inspiration which English reformers drew from the teachings of Luther and Zwingli; and the vacillating interference of James I in the Thirty Years' War: these episodes testify to a connection between the two lands usually political, sometimes economic, and latterly religious, but none the less constant if viewed in the perspective of centuries. In the interval between the close of the religious wars and the expansion of European politics to America and India, that is to say, during the growth of French ascendency in the age of Louis XIV, England and Brandenburg--the forerunner of Prussia, which was in turn the creator of Germany-- discovered a mutual interest in the preservation of Holland from French acquisitiveness and in the protection of Protestantism against the onslaughts of the Most Christian King.
Throughout the eighteenth century Germans played an important part in English history. On the extinction of