The Campaign Manager: Running and Winning Local Elections

By Catherine M. Shaw | Go to book overview

Appendix 2:
The State Initiative and
Referendum Process

"The ax handle
and the tree are
made of the
same wood."
-- Indian proverb


Types of Initiatives
1. Direct Initiative. The completed petition places a proposed law or amendment directly on the ballot, bypassing the legislative process.
2. Indirect Initiative. The completed petition is submitted to the legislature, which then may enact the proposed measure or one substantially similar. If the legislature fails to act within a set time, the proposal is placed on the ballot.
3. Advisory Initiative. The outcome provides a nonbinding indication of public opinion to the legislature.

Kinds of Referenda
1. Mandatory Referendum. State laws vary; however, in general, with a mandatory referendum the legislature must refer all proposed amendments to the constitution as well as measures regarding tax levies, bond issues, and movement of state capitals or county seats.
2. Optional Referendum. The legislature may refer to the citizens any measure that it has passed. This is often called a referral.
3. Petition Referendum. Measures passed by the legislature go into effect after a specified time unless an emergency clause is attached. During that interim, citizens may circulate a petition requiring that the statute be referred to the people either at a special election or at the next general election. If sufficient signatures are collected, the law is not implemented pending the outcome of the election.
4. Advisory Referendum. The legislature may refer a proposed statute to the voters for a nonbinding reflection of public opinion. This is becoming a way for state legislatures to go around a governor's veto of proposed legislative law.

-271-

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The Campaign Manager: Running and Winning Local Elections
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations xi
  • Preface xv
  • How to Use This Handbook 1
  • 1 - The Campaign Team 5
  • 2 - The Campaign Brochure. 17
  • 3 - The Volunteer Organization 35
  • 4 - Fund-Raising 49
  • 5 - Lawn Signs 91
  • 6 - Precinct Analysis 99
  • 7 - Canvassing 125
  • 8 - Getting-Out-The-Vote (Gotv) 137
  • 9 - Direct Mail 159
  • 10 - Media 171
  • 11 - The Candidate 205
  • 12 - The Issue-Based Campaign 235
  • 13 - The Campaign Flowchart 249
  • 14 - After the Ball 255
  • Afterword 257
  • Appendix 1 - Forms for Photocopying 259
  • Appendix 2 - The State Initiative and Referendum Process 271
  • Appendix 3 - Directory of Campaign Web Sites and Other Resources 277
  • Index 281
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