18. In the case of Chicago, Bradley and Zald have shown that the emergence of
the "political machine" very much helped to marginalize the old "economic
dominants" and to further the rise of a specialized political elite ( Bradley and Zald 1965). 19. This accords well with many other findings that have shown that political
parties are particularly prone to be very conservative organizations surviving
without major reforms under highly variable societal and political conditions.
Thus, Lipset and Rokkan have shown that contemporary party systems are still
deeply shaped by very outdated (e.g., religious or class-related) societal cleavages ( Lipset and Rokkan 1967). Similarly, Harmel and Janda have found that national parties founded in earlier epochs have preserved lower levels of "organizational complexity" than parties of more recent origin ( Harmel and
See Chapter 5 by Herbert Schneider (on Germany), Chapter 12 by Sabine
Kropp (on Russia), and Chapter 11 by Zbigniew Zychowicz (on Poland) in this
21. Thus, the erroneous prejudice that American parties were very poorly organized (see Harmel and
Janda 1982, 52ff.) has at least partially been caused by a
too-lengthy ignorance about the local party level. 22.
For the French case, see Prêteceille ( 1968).
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Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective.
Contributors: Martin Saiz - Editor, Hans Geser - Editor.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 39.
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