difficult at the local level for these parties to demarcate their political philosophy and program in an individual way, we find Liberals and Conservatives sitting on council as independents or find them grouped in nonaffiliated parties.
The final question concerns the reasons for the presence of an important contingent of independents in two of the four central cities considered. It appears that right-of-center candidates are in an advantageous position to run as independents. They can draw informally on the Liberal and Conservative Parties' organizational resources and, more important, enjoy campaign funding from business interests, specifically from the development industry. This state of affairs lessens the incentive for these candidates to form or join civic parties. Things are different on the left, where a political organization is needed to make up for a more difficult fund-raising context. This explains why the NDP is the only senior-level party to have been involved in more than one of the cities examined here.
Anderson, J. D. 1972. "Nonpartisan Urban Politics in Canadian Cities". In J. K. Masson and J. D. Anderson, eds., Emerging Party Politics in Urban Canada, 5-21. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
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Publication information: Book title: Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective. Contributors: Martin Saiz - Editor, Hans Geser - Editor. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of publication: Boulder, CO. Publication year: 1999. Page number: 98.
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