Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective

By Martin Saiz; Hans Geser | Go to book overview

Notes
1
A relation is generally defined as clientelistic whenever it includes a continuing exchange between actors in positions of inequality ( Weingrod 1968; Scott 1980; Graziano 1980; Landé 1974). The patronage relation is defined as basically dyadic, but it can be brought about, especially in modern systems, in a "dyadicclientelistic association," where an entire category of people is united by a special link to a single patron.
2
The main converging features are the centralist predominance of the party's summit leadership of the party and the reduced role of the activists; less clear is the degree of de-ideologization of the party ( Kirchheimer 1971).
3
Contrary to what is suggested by Neumann's typology of a "party of individual representation," there is also a vector of social integration -- if not specifically of political socialization -- which generally describes the patronage relation ( Neumann 1956).
4
The hypothesis would thus be that of a new form of "structuring of mass politics" answering to a new social stratification; the perspective is that of Stein Rokkan ( Rokkan 1968 and 1970).
5
The research, directed by G. Bettin Lattes, is now concluding its third phase with an inquiry onto the mayors elected after the reform of the Legge 81/93. The reform of local authorities was initiated with Law 142/ 1990, which concretized the principle of statutory autonomy and redefined the relations among legislative, executive, and bureaucratic power in the municipality; according to this law Italian municipalities wrote their own statutes in the two following years; Law 81/ 1993 successively improved and reoriented this first act, introducing major innovations such as the direct election of the mayor and a new organization of the executive, designed personally by the mayor. Let us remember that these last years have demonstrated a deep and unforseen revolution in the electoral framework (for a quick summary of the last modifications of electoral behavior, see Polis 1 [ 1994]). The results of the two previous phases of the research of the Centro Interuniversitario di Sociologia Politica have been reported in Bettin and Magnier ( 1989 and 1991).
6
We comment here on the results of two questionnaires: the second one, sent to the mayors ante-reform, including 113 questions, went to a stratified sample of mayors in charge of cities both within and outside metropolitan areas (for a complete description of the inquiry and the sample, see Bettin and Magnier 1995). We defined as metropolitan areas all the provinces indicated as potential metropolitan areas in the Legge 142/90. The first questionnaire -- twenty-six questions were administered to the families of sociology students in four Italian universities (Genova, Torino, Bari, Firenze). For a description of the inquiry and the sample, see Bettin ( 1995).
7
For the description of the areas, see Bettin ( 1995).
8
We asked the mayors the following: "How many citizens do you receive on the average in the City Hall?"; "How many of them ask you for help in solving personal problems?"; "How many of them are supporters of your party?"
9
The answers are deeply determined by the duration of the term of office. Mayors who lead a city for more than five years are more sure of their own power (78 percent of the long-incumbent mayors think themselves to be the most influ

-210-

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Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Part One - Theoretical Orientation and Empirical Observations 1
  • 1 - The Local Party as an Object of Interdisciplinary Comparative Study 3
  • Notes 37
  • References 39
  • 2 - Local Political Parties in Comparative Perspective 44
  • Notes 70
  • References 71
  • Part Two - Local Political Parties in Local and National Context 75
  • Notes 98
  • References 98
  • 4 - Local Parties in England 101
  • Notes 121
  • 5 - Local Parties in the German Countryside 123
  • Notes 149
  • References 149
  • 6 - Local Parties and Electioneering in Germany 151
  • Notes 169
  • References 169
  • 7 - Do Political Parties Matter in U.S. Cities? 171
  • Notes 189
  • 8 - Forms of Patronage and Political Parties in the Italian City 191
  • Notes 210
  • References 211
  • 9 - Local Parties in Switzerland 213
  • Notes 239
  • 10 - Local Party Organizations in Denmark 242
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • 11 - The Local Party System in Poland 273
  • References 281
  • 12 from Communist Predominance to Multiparty System 283
  • Notes 306
  • Part Three - Conclusion 311
  • References 334
  • Appendix: - Synopsis of Hypotheses 335
  • Index 339
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