Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective

By Martin Saiz; Hans Geser | Go to book overview

professionalization of the local party organizations, with part-time employees and more reliance on paid assistance.


Notes
1.
For a review of this literature, see Lawson and Merld ( 1988). See also Crotty ( 1984); Wattenberg ( 1990); Appelton and Ward ( 1995).
2.
The limited number of studies of local party organizations is by no means an exclusively Danish phenomenon; see Frendreis and Gitelson ( 1993, 533).
3.
In spring 1995, an elaborate follow-up study of the 1982 study was conducted. The data from this study were not available before the deadline for this book.
4.
On minimal definitions, see Sartori ( 1976, 61).
5.
See Svensson ( 1993) for a summary of the process of Danish democratization.
6.
Thorsen, quoted in Miller ( 1968, 60).
7.
One of the remaining three new parties from 1973, the Christian People's Party, lost its seats in Parliament, at the September 1994 election, but a new party the Unitylist ("Enhedslisten" -- an association of small left-wing parties and single individuals) gained representation.
8.
The four largest towns have a different system, with several powerful fulltime and salaried vice-mayors or eldersmen, who are each responsible for one sector.
9.
This autonomy should not be exaggerated. Many of the tasks are regulated by central agencies, for instance, the payment of social transfers. The central rules for this area are very detailed and leave a limited local autonomy. Other such areas are transfers to families with children, health insurance, and rent support. Mouritzen estimates that the expenditure in those areas amounts to about 30-35 percent of the total costs ( 1990, 583-585). For the other two-thirds of the budget, the degree of autonomy varies, being largest for libraries and roads, lowest for expenditures on schools ( Mouritzen, 1990, 120-122).
10.
For a full description of the Danish electoral system, see, for example, Johansen ( 1979) and Tonsgaard ( 1986); on municipal elections, see also Elklit ( 1991b, 220ff.).
11.
On tasks and functions of political parties, see King ( 1969) and Pedersen ( 1994).
12.
The high number of passive party organizations can be explained by the surveying technique used by Mouritzen: Because the survey also includes local parties without representatives in the local councils, it could be expected that more passive organizations would be found if they have no representative toward whom they can direct their activities and initiatives.
13.
In Buch Jensen ( 1994, 20-21), an example of the effectiveness of telemarketing is quoted.
14.
See King ( 1969) and Pedersen ( 1994) on the tasks and functions of political parties.

-269-

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Local Parties in Political and Organizational Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Part One - Theoretical Orientation and Empirical Observations 1
  • 1 - The Local Party as an Object of Interdisciplinary Comparative Study 3
  • Notes 37
  • References 39
  • 2 - Local Political Parties in Comparative Perspective 44
  • Notes 70
  • References 71
  • Part Two - Local Political Parties in Local and National Context 75
  • Notes 98
  • References 98
  • 4 - Local Parties in England 101
  • Notes 121
  • 5 - Local Parties in the German Countryside 123
  • Notes 149
  • References 149
  • 6 - Local Parties and Electioneering in Germany 151
  • Notes 169
  • References 169
  • 7 - Do Political Parties Matter in U.S. Cities? 171
  • Notes 189
  • 8 - Forms of Patronage and Political Parties in the Italian City 191
  • Notes 210
  • References 211
  • 9 - Local Parties in Switzerland 213
  • Notes 239
  • 10 - Local Party Organizations in Denmark 242
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • 11 - The Local Party System in Poland 273
  • References 281
  • 12 from Communist Predominance to Multiparty System 283
  • Notes 306
  • Part Three - Conclusion 311
  • References 334
  • Appendix: - Synopsis of Hypotheses 335
  • Index 339
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