systems correlate with more heterogeneous populations. Yet the potentially fragmenting effects of national ideologies on the local political culture was deflected by the local issue orientation. National parties in federal countries appear not to feel the effects of fragmentation because politics in these countries is bifurcated between local and national issues. The studies of Germany and, to a lesser extent, the United States show that party elites can maintain local support from above and that local politics need not address divisive national issues. The Canadian case is instructive because of the near absence of national partisan influence. Local social movements, it seems, provide an inadequate base from which to mount a durable challenge to an agenda dominated by physical development. Only in Switzerland did it seem possible for lower-level parties to impact national politics. Why this is the case in federal Switzerland is a mystery, but we suspect that it is caused by the influence of strong central-local partisan networks. Proportional representation encourages not only political diversity but allows for easy maintenance of a national presence. Such national-local linkages encourage the communication of political information up and down the partisan ladder. This, together with the country's long-standing commitment to local autonomy, results in a larger marketplace for political ideas, both locally and nationally.
Key, V. O. Jr. 1949. Southern Politics. New York: Vintage.
Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. 1966. The Federalist Papers. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House.
Schattsneider, E. E. 1960. The Semisovereign People. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.