Broken Contract? Changing Relationships between Americans and Their Government

By Stephen C. Craig | Go to book overview

NOTES

I am indebted to Cara Wong, Christopher Muste, and Robert Jensen for their assistance in the preparation of this chapter. I also acknowledge the support provided by the Institute for Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

1.
For a provocative account of populist thinking in recent Politics, see Wilentz ( 1993).
2.
"The analysis presented here relies heavily on the two excellent studies of direct democracy" by Thomas Cronin ( 1989) and David Magleby ( 1984).
3.
V. O. Key ( 1961) outlined the conditions under which representatives are most likely to be swayed by their constituents' views.
4.
These data, drawn from a variety of national opinion surveys conducted by CBS News and the Gallup Organization, are reported in American Enterprise ( March-April 1994,p.88).
5.
See USA Today, June 1, 1994; findings are based on a telephone poll of 629 adults conducted May 31, 1994.
6.
See Cronin ( 1989, Chapter 6). The specific findings reported here are taken from American Enterprise ( March-April 1994, p. 89).
7.
Cronin's national survey found that by a margin of more than two to one, the public favored allowing citizens to place state and local issues on the ballot rather than giving elected officials the responsibility for making all laws ( Cronin 1989, Chapter 6).
8.
These data are provided by the Field Institute through UC Data, Survey Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
9.
For a general discussion of term limits, see Benjamin and Malbin ( 1992). The chapters in this volume by Petracca and Malbin provide an excellent review of the history of the idea and of the debate at the Constitutional Convention.
10.
Results for 1994 are as reported in Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, November 12, 1994, p. 3240.
11.
These data are taken from American Enterprise ( November-December 1992, p. 89).
12.
ANES data were provided through the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan.
13.
A useful summary is provided by Tolbert ( 1993). The initiative in Colorado also limited the terms of its members of Congress to twelve years.
14.
In California and other states, however, courts have ruled in favor of term limits for state legislators; the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court left these limits intact.
15.
See Elster ( 1984) for other examples.
16.
There are many examples of the failure of the public to link general attitudes with concrete actions on specific issues; see the discussion in Erikson, Luttberg, and Tedin ( 1991).
17.
This is a central point in Converse ( 1964); also see Erikson, Luttberg, and Tedin ( 1991).
18.
Judicial review ultimately defines the nature of individual rights in America. The rights of the accused, for example, is a highly contested issue on which constitutional rulings have shifted in the direction of public opinion. Still, civil libertarians are quick to challenge initiatives and the courts have declared unconstitutional numerous measures approved by voters just as they have overridden the actions of state legislatures and Congress. See Magleby ( 1984, chapter 3).
19.
The following account is taken from Sears and Citrin ( 1985).

-292-

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