Control & Crisis in Colonial Kenya: The Dialectic of Domination

By Bruce Berman | Go to book overview

1908-14 period. It represented a continuing effort to control the sources of uncertainty and instability in the colony and balance the conflicting demands of accumulation and legitimation. As a result, the colonial state, to a far greater degree than the metropolitan state of the era, came to control access to the resources for accumulation and shape processes of class formation in the colony.

In the next three chapters we will examine the further development of these features of the colonial state and their relation to the political economy of Kenya through the interwar period.


Notes
1.
Gavin Kitching, Class and Economic Change in Kenya: The Making of an African Petite Bourgeoisie, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1980, p. 282. See also Chs I and X, passim.
2.
From a large and growing literature on the precolonial history of Kenya see R. D. Waller , 'The lords of East Africa: The Maasai in the mid-nineteenth century', Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, 1979; G. Muriuki, A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900, Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1974; M. Hay, "'Local trade and ethnicity in western Kenya'", African Economic History Review 2( 1), 1975; J. M. Lonsdale, "'When did the Gusii (or any other group) become a tribe?'", Kenya Historical Review 5( 1), 1977. The differentiation of wealth in precolonial society, among the Kikuyu in particular, and emergence of a recognizable group of accumulators is stressed in the work of M. P. Cowen , notably 'Differentiation in a Kenya location', East African Universities Social Science Conference, Nairobi, 1972, 'Patterns of cattle ownership and dairy production, 1900-1965', unpublished ms., 1974; 'Wattle production in the Central Province: capital and household commodity production, 1903-1964', Conference on the Political Economy of Colonial Kenya, 1929-52, Cambridge, 1975; 'Capital and peasant households', unpublished paper, July, 1976. See also, J. Forbes Munro, Colonial Rule and the Kamba: Social Change in the Kenya Highlands, 1889-1939, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975, pp. 7-30.
3.
On precolonial trade see R. M.A. Van Zwanenberg with Anne King, An Economic History of Kenya and Uganda, 1800-1970, London: Macmillan, 1975, Chs 8 and 9; P. Marris & A. Somerset, African Businessmen: A Study of Entrepreneurship and Development in Kenya, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971, pp. 30-3; and Munro, Colonial Rule and the Kamba, pp. 23-6.
4.
G. H. Mungeam, British Rule in Kenya, 1895-1912, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966, pp. 9-13, 18; M. P.K. Sorrenson, Origins of European Settlement in Kenya, Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 14-18.
5.
On the lack of Foreign Office policy see Mungeam, British Rule, pp. 33, 43, 68-72. On the metropolitan attitude to local officials see Chapter 3, below.
6.
Sir Charles Eliot (actually Commissioner of the EAP) in 1904 and Sir Percy Girouard in 1912.
7.
Sorrenson, Origins, pp. 29-30; Mungeam, British Rule, p. 132; Richard Wolff, The Economics of Colonialism: Britain and Kenya, 1870-1930, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974, p. 50.
8.
For detailed accounts which reveal the connections between the politics of conquest and

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