D. A. Low &
J.M Lonsdale, 'Introduction: towards the new order 1945-1963' in D. A. Low &
Alison Smith (eds), History of East Africa, Vol. III, Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1976, pp. 12-16.
Judith Heyer, "'The origin of regional inequalities in smallholder agriculture in
Kenya 1920-73'", East African Journal of Rural Development 8( 1-2) 1975, p. 152.
M. P. Cowen, 'Differentiation in a Kenya location', East African Universities Social
Science Conference, 1972, p. 13.
Labour Department, Annual Report for 1950, Nairobi: Government Printer, 1951.
Mary Parker, Political and Social Aspects of the Development of Municipal Government in
Kenya, London: Colonial Office, 1949, p. 9. Labour Department officials quickly
noticed that 'The African, generally speaking, prefers industrial work and shows an
aptitude for it. It is uncommon to hear complaints of low output by natives operating
machines or working in factories'. ( Labour Department, Annual Report for 1945, Nairobi: Government Printer, 1945, p. 13.)
David Easterbrook, 'Kenyan askari in World War II and their demobilization with
special reference to Machakos District', in Three Aspects of Crisis in Colonial Kenya, Eastern Africa Series XXI, Maxwell School of Public Affairs, Syracuse University, 1975, p. 29.
Kenya Government Library (KGL), 'Report of the Sub-Committee on Post-War
Employment of Africans', Nairobi, 1943, p. 5.
J. M. Lonsdale, 'Rural resistance and mass political mobilization amongst the Luo',
in Mouvements Nationaux d'Independence et Classes Populaire, Vol. II, Paris: Armand
Colin, 1971, p. 464.
Kenya National Archives Nairobi (KNA), Ministry of Agriculture 4/113, 'Half
Yearly Report, January-June, 1948' Central Province (quoted in Cowen, 'Differentiation in a Kenya location', p. 14).
Report of the East African Royal Commission, 1953-1955, Cmd 9475, London: HMSO, 1955, p. 70; Report of the Committee on Agricultural Credit for Africans, Nairobi: Government Printer, paras 3-7.
J. M. Lonsdale, 'The growth and transformation of the colonial state in Kenya,
1929-52', Seminar Paper, Cambridge University, October 1977, p. 11.
Oginga Odinga asserts that the Administration actively harassed African efforts to
enter business 'not only because it was competition against established trading preserves, but also because it was a demonstration of African initiative and independence'. ( Not Yet Uhuru, London: Heinemann, 1967, p. 89, and also 79-89 for an
account of Odinga's Luo Thrift and Trading Corporation.)
Easterbrook, 'Kenyan askari', p. 46.
KGL, 'Report of the Sub-Committee on Post-War Employment of Africans', Nairobi, 1943, pp. 5-6; Annual Report of Native Affairs 1946-47, Nairobi: Government
Donald Barnett &
Karari Njama, Mau Mau From Within, London: MacGibbon &
Kee, 1966, p. 77.
M. P.K. Sorrenson, Land Reform in the Kikuyu Country, Nairobi: Oxford University
Press, 1967, p. 80.
Tabitha M. J. Kanogo, "'Rift valley squatters and Mau Mau'", Kenya Historical Review
5( 2) 1977, pp. 249-51; R. M. Wambaa &
K. King, 'The political economy of the Rift
Valley: 'a squatter perspective, Hadith 5, Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1975, pp. 196-9. Kanogo also notes that a degree of stratification developed within
the squatter population between the nyapara (foreman), milk clerks, house servants,