Theory and Design in the First Machine Age

By Reyner Banham | Go to book overview
Save to active project

14: De Stijl: the International phase

THOUGH IT IS impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the Dutch and International phases of de Stijl, in terms of theoretical writings or artistic productions, the change in membership between 1920 and 1922 is very marked indeed, and gives a fair picture of the transformation that was in process. By the beginning of 1922 van der Leck, van Tongerloo, van t'Hoff, Wils, Oud and Kok had left, and Huszar was about to leave, while Mondriaan, established in Paris since 1919, was no longer a directly effective member, though he did not resign finally until 1925. Severini had also lost contact, so that van Doesburg himself alone remained of the original membership. The new men who filled the gaps were very different from those who had left.

Only two of them were Dutch, two were imaginary, one was German, one was Russian. The Dutch pair were Gerrit Rietveld, who had been a member since as early as 1918, but only now came to prominence, and Cor van Eesteren, whom van Doesburg enrolled in Weimar in 1923. Both have gained fame as architects though Rietveld seems to have entered the group as a furniture-maker, and van Eesteren, far from being a convinced Modernist when he met van Doesburg, was on his way to take up a Rome scholarship. The two imaginary members were both pseudo-persons of van Doesburg1 in his Dadaist mood, I. K. Bonset and Aldo Camini, and it was over these signatures that he made most of his purely literary contributions to de Stijl. The German was Hans Richter, a former Dadaist who had turned to abstraction independently of the Dutch Movement, and the Russian was El Lissitsky, the apostle of Constructivism to Western Europe. The adherence of Lissitsky was brief, though important, and his place was taken by two other members of the Berlin G group, Frederich Kiesler, the Austrian theatrical designer, and Werner Graeff, an ex-student of the Bauhaus who was later connected with the Werkbund. The fourth and most celebrated member of G, Mies van der Rohe, never became a

____________________
1
Even ' van Doesburg' was a pseudonym--his real name was C. E. M. Kupper.

-185-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Theory and Design in the First Machine Age
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 342

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?