Political Science: The State of the Discipline II

By Ada W. Finifter | Go to book overview
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improvement: Kenneth Bickers, Martha Derthick, James Fesler, Ada Finifter, George Frederickson, Alice Honeywell, Patricia Ingraham, Charles O. Jones, Anne Khademian, Laurence Lynn, Rob Meyer, H. Brinton Milward, Laurence J. O'Toole, Paul Quirk, Andrew Reschovsky, Francis Rourke, Karl Scholz, Michael Wiseman, and two anonymous reviewers. They asked far better questions than I had the wit or space to answer. I will attempt to explore some of these issues more fully in a forthcoming book, to be published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.

1.
In this paper, I will use "bureaucracy" to refer to the government's administrative apparatus. "Administration" will include "bureaucracy" as well as the broader political and social processes surrounding it.

The differences between Hamilton and Madison's approaches are reflected in basic tensions between Hamiltonian and Jeffersonian administrative theories. For a fascinating look at this question, see Caldwell ( 1988).

2.
Readers interested in comparing other analyses of the state of administration can consult Chandler ( 1987), Perry ( 1989), Lynn and Wildavsky ( 1990), Stillman ( 1991), Rainey ( 1991), and Hill ( 1992a).
3.
The first three of these historical periods match an analysis developed by Martin ( 1952).
4.
Not everyone, however, credits Wilson with the influence usually ascribed to him. See Van Riper ( 1987). The best guide to this, and most other questions involving the literature of public administration, is Martin ( 1989).
5.
They were, in addition to Goodnow, A. Lawrence Lowell, Woodrow Wilson, W.W. Willoughby, and Ernst Freund.
6.
Members of the staff included: Joseph P. Harris, director; G. Lyle Belsley; A.E. Buck; Laverne Burchfield; Robert H. Connery; Robert E. Cushman; Paul T. David; William Y. Elliott; Herbert Emmerich; Merle Fainsod; James W. Fesler; Katherine Frederic; Patterson H. French; William J. Haggerty; James Hart; Arthur N. Holcombe; Arthur W. Macmahon; Harvey C. Mansfield; Charles McKinley; John F. Miller; John D. Millett; Floyd W. Reeves; Leo C. Rosten; Spencer Thompson; Mary C. Trackett; Schuyler C. Wallace; and Edwin E. Witte (see President's Committee on Administrative Management 1937, viii; and Fesler 1987).
7.
For a useful catalog of the enduring administrative principles, see Hood and Jackson ( 1991).
8.
In fact, there already was a small but important literature on implementation when Pressman and Wildavsky wrote their pathbreaking book. See Bailey and Mosher ( 1968) and Murphy ( 1971).
9.
I am indebted to Charles O. Jones for finding and sharing this nugget.
10.
A notable exception to the top-down approach is Elmore ( 1982).
11.
These figures were calculated by the author from the index in Ripley and Franklin ( 1986).
12.
I am indebted to Steven Kelman for making this point.
13.
A very useful history of the public bureaucracy movement is Hill ( 1992b).

Bibliography

Aberbach, Joel D., Robert D. Putnam, and Bert A. Rockman. 1981. Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Allison, Graham T. 1969. "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis." American Political Science Review 63:689-718.

Allison, Graham T. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.

American Political Science Association, Committee for the Advancement of Teaching. 1951. Goals for Political Science. New York: William Sloane Associates.

Appleby, Paul H. 1945. Big Democracy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Arrow, Kenneth J. 1985. "The Economics of Agency." In Principals and Agents: The Structure of Business, ed. John W. Pratt and Richard J. Zeckhauser. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Bailey, Stephen K., and Edith K. Mosher. 1968. ESEA: The Office of Education Administers a Law. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Bardach, Eugene. 1977. The Implementation Game: What Happens After a Bill Becomes a Law. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Barzelay, Michael. 1991. "The Single Case Study as Intellectually Ambitious Inquiry." Paper prepared for delivery at the National Public Management Research Conference, Syracuse, NY.

Barzelay, Michael. 1993. Breaking Through Bureaucracy: A New Vision for Managing in Government. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barzelay, Michael, and Linda Kaboolian. 1990. "Structural Metaphors and Public Management Education." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 9:599-610.

Behn, Robert. 1988. "The Nature of Knowledge About Public Management: Lessons for Research and Teaching from Our Knowledge About Chess and Warfare." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7:200-12.

Bendor, Jonathan. 1988. "Review Article: Formal Models of Bureaucracy." British Journal of Political Science 18:353- 95.

Bendor, Jonathan. 1990. "Formal Models of Bureaucracy: A Review." In Public Administration: The State of the Discipline, ed. Naomi B. Lynn and Aaron Wildavsky. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

Bendor, Jonathan, and Terry Moe. 1985. "An Adaptive Model of Bureaucratic Politics." American Political Science Review 79:755-74.

Berman, Paul. 1978. "The Study of Macro- and Micro- Implementation." Public Policy 26:157-84.

Blais, André, and Stéphane Dion, eds. 1991. The Budget-Maximizing Bureaucrat: Appraisals and Evidence. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bozeman, Barry. 1987. All Organizations Are Public: Bridging Public and Private Organization Theories. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass Publishers.

Brownlow Committee (The President's Committee on Administrative Management). 1937. Report of the President's Committee: Administrative Management in the Government of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Bryson, John M. 1988. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Buchanan, James M., and Gordon Tullock. 1962. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Burke, John P. 1986. Bureaucratic Responsibility. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Caldwell, Lynton K. 1965. "Public Administration and the Universities: A Half-Century of Development." Public Administration Review 25:52-60.

Caldwell, Lynton K. 1988. The Administrative Theories of Hamilton and Jefferson: Their Contribution to Thought on Public Administration, 2nd ed. New York: Holmes & Meier.

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