Political Science: The State of the Discipline II

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55.
See, for example, Williamson ( 1985, chap. 8) and sources there cited. These efforts at explanation carry an evident danger of functionalism -- because the institution arose, it must have been more efficient -- but the danger can be, and I think in the literature cited here has been, successfully resisted.
56.
Gary Cox ( 1986, 208-211) account of nineteenth- century MPs' delegation of quasi-judicial tasks (enclosures, rights-of- way) seems to me to be entirely in this spirit. For a more direct effort at application, see Weingast and Moran ( 1983).
57.
Demonstrating such effects, of course, proves nothing about state autonomy. If, for example, PR leads to more stable government but itself is determined by some aspect of civil or international society, institutions still have little independent effect.
58.
William Nordhaus ( 1975) had originally asserted that democratic governments stimulated the economy before an election, and often depressed demand immediately after, resulting in economic perturbations that were at best unhelpful to long-term economic growth. The most influential statement of the hypothesis was in Edward Tufte ( 1978). Valerie Bunce ( 1980) subsequently contended that the Soviet and East European governments also stimulated consumer-goods output to win support for new leaders immediately after a change of power. On closer inspection, as Alt and Chrystal ( 1983, chap. 5) observed in their pioneering and far-ranging textbook on Political Economics, evidence for these plausible hypotheses was almost wholly lacking for the democratic states; and Philip Roeder ( 1985) cast similar doubt on Bunce's assertions.
59.
In parliamentary systems where a single party held a majority throughout the period of analysis, real disposable income increased in 78% of the election years but in only 39% of the non- election years; in systems with strong presidencies, the respective figures were 71% for election years, 47% for years without an election. In no other category of systems did the difference between election and non-election years exceed 10% ( Powell 1982, 210).
60.
See the discussion in Alt and Chrystal ( 1983, 47-49). An important intervening effort is Richard C. K. Burdekin and Leroy O. Laney ( 1988).
62.
Two recent review essays, by Newman ( 1991) and Laitin ( 1991), discuss the theoretical issues with particular acuity. Also helpful is the critique by Donald L. Horowitz ( 1985, chap. 3).
63.
Gourevitch ( 1979) argued that separatist sentiment was likeliest to arise in regions that were economically dynamic but politically subservient.
65.
Notable are David Laitin ( 1986, 145-146) analysis of the "instrumental management" of Yoruba identity and Nelson Kasfir ( 1979) discussion of the invented "Nubian" ethnicity in Uganda.
66.
The clearest, or at least the most provocative, statement of the view came from the pen of Albert Breton ( 1964). Other prominent representatives of the "conflict" tendency include Fredrik Barth ( 1969), Howard Melson and Robert Wolpe ( 1970), and Walker Connor ( 1973).
67.
For explicit statements of the assumption, see Breton ( 1964) and the sources cited in Horowitz ( 1985, 101-105). See also Newman ( 1991, 458).
68.
The events that accompanied the partition of India in 1947 are a fair sample: see Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre ( 1975, esp. chap. 13). On the other hand, the two World Wars spilled even more blood, for equally little tangible gain to individual participants.
69.
One may of course quibble about whether the conflict in Nor, hem Ireland is ethnic. The distinct ancestry of the two groups (the Protestants having originally been Scottish and English settlers) supports an affirmative answer. See the incisive discussion of the larger definitional issue in Horowitz ( 1985, chap. 1, esp. 41ff). On the peculiar situation of settler elites, see Ian Lustick ( 1985).
70.
As early as 1968, John Armstrong called attention to the advanced educational and occupational status of the Armenian population of the USSR: 94 of every 10,000 were full-time students in higher education (among Russians, the figure was 90; among Azerbaijanis, 75); 43 of every 10,000 were "scientific workers" (Russians, 33; Azerbaijanis, 24); and 30 in every 1000 were "specialists with higher education" (Russians, 21; Azerbaijanis, 18). Armstrong went on to note that, "like all mobilized diasporas, the Armenians arouse resentment....the Azerbaijanis and some other Turkic groups have a tradition of bitter animosity to Armenians" ( Armstrong 1990, 25, 27, 60).
71.
Laitin ( 1991, 162) notes that the Estonian national movement "was propelled...[in part] by the expectation of rapid growth under capitalism in an independent state."

Bibliography

Alchian, Armen A., and Harold Demsetz. 1972. "Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization." American Economic Review 62:777-795.

Alchian, Armen A., and Harold Demsetz. 1973. "The Property Rights Paradigm." Journal of Economic History 33:16-27.

Alesina, Alberto. 1989. "Politics and Business Cycles in Industrial Democracies." Economic Policy 8:57-98.

Alesina, Alberto, and Lawrence H. Summers. 1991. "Central Bank Independence and Macroeconomic Performance: Some Comparative Evidence." Harvard University and NBER, mimeo.

Alt, James E., and K. Alec Chrystal. 1983. Political Economics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Alvarez, Michael R., Geoffrey Garrett, and Peter Lange. 1991. "Government Partisanship, Labor Organization, and Macroeconomic Performance." American Political Science Review 85:539-556.

Amsden, Alice H. 1985. "The State and Taiwan's Economic Development." In Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter B. Evans , Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, Perry. 1974. Lineages of the Absolutist State. London: NLB.

Armstrong, John A. [ 1968] 1990. "The Ethnic Scene in the Soviet Union: The View of the Dictatorship." Journal of Soviet Nationalities 1:14-65.

Balassa, Bela, Gerardo M. Bueno, Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski, and Mario Enrique Simonsen . 1986. Toward Renewed Economic Growth in Latin America. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.

Barro, Robert J., and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 1992. "Convergence." Journal of Political Economy 100:223-251.

Barry, Brian. 1970. Sociologists, Economists, and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Barth, Fredrik, ed. 1969. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference. London: Allen & Unwin.

Bates, Robert H. 1981. Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bates, Robert H., and Da-Hsiang Donald Lien. 1985. "A Note on Taxation, Development, and Representative Government." Politics & Society 14:53-70.

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